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Primary Sources :
Define Primary Sources.
Where can they come from?
What are the 3 challenges they come with?
- - firsthand records of events, theories, opinions, or actions.
- - In the form of published or unpublished documents, recording, or artifacts, and they must be contemporary to the events, people or information that is at issue.
- - 1. The information available about an even was written hundreds of years ago.
- 2. Not always accurate, especially including someone's perception.
- 3. Often ambiguous and fragmentary, making them difficult to analyze.
Facts, Opinions, Biases, and Stereotypes :
Define Biases and
Define Critical reading.
- - information based on real, provable events, or situations.
- - beliefs base don personal judgement, rather than on indisputable facts.
- - opinions or beliefs that affect a person's ability to make fair, unclouded judgements or decisions.
- - oversimplified opinions, that do not account for individual differences, about an entire group of people or things.
- - a reading style in which the reader carefully analyzed the text, judging its credibility and the author's intentions rather than simply accepting it.
What is the author's purpose?
Define the 4 different types of passages.
- - main reason for writing a particular piece.
- - Narrative : tells a story, or related a chain of events.
- - Expository : introduces or explains a subject, gives groundwork information that's necessary for understanding later ideas.
- - Technical : passes along precise information, usually about a specific topic, and usually in a formal or semiformal style.
- - Persuasive : tries to get the reader to agree with the author.
Topic, Main Idea, Supporting Details, and Themes :
- - Topic : the general subject matter covered by the work. There can be several answers.
- - Main Idea "thesis" : the work's specific message. It's the reason the text was written.
- - Supporting Details : flesh out, and explain the main idea.
- - Themes : subjects that a written work frequently touches upon on.
Topic and Summary Sentences:
What do topic sentences help accomplish?
What are summary sentences?
- - helps answer what the point of a specific paragraph is as a whole.
- - express the main point of a paragraph, or of a larger text structure. Then it backs up with supporting details.
- - They sum up the point of the earlier text, deriving the message home so the reader doesn't forget/miss it.
- provides a closure to a piece of text.
Logical Conclusions of a Reading Selection:
Define logical conclusion.
- an idea that follows from the facts or ideas presented in the text.
Predictions, inferences and conclusions:
What does drawing inferences mean?
What are some of the reasons as to why you should draw inferences?
- - a next step or logical conclusion that is not actually written in the text; rather, deduced by the reader, based on information that's in the text.
- - avoiding accepting opinionated writing as fact. And using prior experiences to draw predictions, conclusion and inferences.
Persuasive, Informative, Entertaining, and Expressive Passages:
Writers aim to do these four things...
- - Inform the reader about some fact or event; newspaper articles.
- - Persuade the reader to a particular viewpoint; this sort of writing is called persuasive writing.
- - Entertain the reader; most fiction novels.
- - Express feelings; large amount of poetry.
What does it mean for a literature to have historical context?
- the time and place in which the piece was written will influence the work in some way. These historical factors may affect what is written and how it's written.
What is it?
What are the four types of formatting that may be used to enhance text structure?
- - the way in which a given text is organized. Helps emphasize the author's point.
- - 1. Problem-solution : illustrated by presenting the problem in one paragraph,and the solution in another.
- - 2. Comparison-contrast : the author may present two different cases with the intent of making the reader consider the differences(or similarities) between the two cases.
- - 3. Cause-effect : the author normally presents an action first, and then describes the effects that result from that action.
- - 4. Description : tends to describe or characterize a person, thing, or idea.
Indexes and Tables of Contents:
What's the purpose of both?
- - Table of contents : provides an overview of a document, outlining its basic structure and allowing the reader to quickly look up (and skip to) the section she wants to read.
- - Index : provides a way of looking up various topics in the document. Consists of a list of names, topics, and ideas mentioned in a text.
Grammar for Style and Clarity :
What are coordinating conjunctions?
What are subordinating conjunctions?
What does nominalization mean?
- - words that join two or more words, phrases, or clauses so that each conjoined element is equal. (for, and, not, but, or, yet, and so. FANBOYS)
- - a word that joins two or more clauses and makes the clauses that contains it dependent. (because, though, although, as , as if, when and while)
- - making of a noun from a verb, adverb or adjective.