Chapter 16 Lymphatic System

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Chapter 16 Lymphatic System
2014-07-15 23:26:08
Lymphatic system icc davis anatomy physiology chapter 16
A&P 2
Chapter 16 Lymphatic System ICC:Davis
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  1. Transports excess fluid from interstitial space to the blood stream, helps defend the body from invasion, and absorbs digested fats through lacteals in the small intestine.
    lymphatic system
  2. Microscopic closed-ended tubes in the interstitial space.
    lymphatic capillaries
  3. Tissue fluid entering lymphatic capillaries is called ____.
  4. Lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine.
  5. Formed by the merging of lymphatic capillaries.
    lymphatic vessels
  6. Lymphatic vessels lead to ____ and merge into ____.
    • lymph nodes
    • lymphatic trunks
  7. Lead to lymph nodes
    afferent lymphatic vessel
  8. Lead away from lymph nodes
    efferent lymphatic vessel
  9. Drain lymph from large body regions and lead to 2 collecting ducts.
    lymphatic trunks
  10. Drains the right side of the head, chest and arm.
    Right lymphatic duct
  11. Largest duct, drains the rest of the body excluding the right side of the head, chest and arm.
    thoracic duct
  12. The right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct both empty into ____
    subclavian veins
  13. What is the order of the lymphatic pathway?
    • lymphatic capillaries
    • lymphatic vessels
    • lymph nodes
    • lymphatic trunks
    • right lymphatic duct/thoracic duct
    • subclavian veins
  14. Originates from the blood plasma due to blood pressure
    tissue fluid
  15. Plasma proteins left in the blood causes ____ to build, drawing water back into the capillary walls.
    osmotic pressure
  16. Absorbs fat and returns very small proteins to the blood.
  17. Transports foreign particles to lymph nodes
  18. Disease which the lymphatic vessels are blocked by parasitic worms. The blockage will not allow the lymph to circulate properly, causing severe edema, primarily in the extremities.
    lymphatic filariasis
  19. Where are lymph nodes found?
    cervical (neck), axillary (armpits), inguinal regions (groin) and thoracic (chest), abdominal (stomach), and pelvic cavities.
  20. Occur in chains along major lymphatic vessels and contain structural units called lymph nodules. Not found in the central nervous system.
    lymph nodes
  21. The structural units found in lymph nodes
    lymph nodules
  22. Filter harmful particles before returning to blood, centers for lymphocyte production, and contain macrophages that remove foreign particles from lymph.
    lymph nodes
  23. Functioning mostly from birth to puberty, this organ is a soft, bi-lobed structure located between the lungs and above the heart.
  24. Divides into lobules that contain lymphocytes, which change into T-lymphocytes (T cells) for immunity
  25. The largest lymphatic organ
  26. Located on the left side beneath the diaphragm and behind the stomach
  27. Functions as a blood reservoir; macrophages and lymphocytes filter foreign particles and damaged RBC from blood
  28. What causes infections?
    pathogens which include viruses, bacteria, protozoans, and parasites
  29. Defense mechanism which protects against many pathogens
    nonspecific defense mechanisms
  30. Defense mechanism which provides protection against a specific pathogen which is "immunity"
    specific defense mechanisms
  31. Each species is resistant to certain diseases while susceptible to others.
    species resistance
  32. Prevent entrance to body; skin and mucous membranes
    mechanical barriers
  33. Pepsin and HCI in gastric juice, and lysozyme in tears, are examples of what type of chemical barrier?
    enzyme action
  34. Proteins produced by cells that interfere with the reproduction and spread of viruses is what type of chemical barrier?
  35. Only effective when you have a very low pH and hydrocloric acid is present.
  36. Chemical barrier which causes the liver and spleen to retain iron which is needed by bacteria and fungi to grow.
  37. Chemical barrier where tissues response to injury. Causes redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
  38. Chemical barrier which removes foreign particles from lymph, the most active being neutrophils and monocytes.
  39. Uses lymphocytes and macrophages to resist specific pathogens
  40. Where are undifferentiated lymphocytes produced?
    bone marrow
  41. Lymphocytes enter the blood and some are processed by the thymus gland to become what?
    T-lymphocytes (T cells)
  42. Lymphocytes remaining in red bone marrow to become what?
    B-lymphocytes (B-cells)
  43. Attack directly and provide cell-mediated immunity.
  44. Attack indirectly by producing antibodies and provide antibody-mediated immunity.
  45. What are the types of specific defense mechanisms?
    • immunity
    • origin of cells (T-cells/B-cells)
  46. Types of acquired immunity
    • natural active
    • artificial active
    • natural passive
    • artificial passive
  47. Acquired immunity which a person learns through having a disease to make antibodies, such as chickenpox.
    natural active
  48. Acquired immunity which a person is exposed to a vaccine containing dead or weakened pathogens and learns to make antibodies.
    artificial active
  49. Acquired immunity where babies receive antibodies from mother before birth and through milk after birth.
    natural passive
  50. Acquired immunity where a person is given antibodies in an injection.
    artificial passive
  51. What are the types of nonspecific defense mechanisms?
    • species resistance
    • mechanical barriers
    • chemical barriers
    • fever
    • inflammation
    • phagocytosis