Lecture one study guide

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  1. What is Physiology? How is it different/similar to anatomy?
    Anatomy focuses on the structure of living organism and Physiology focuses on how living organisms functions.
  2. What are the Levels of organizations in the body- from Molecules to whole organism? total of 5
    • 1. Chemicals Level
    • 2. Cellular Level
    • 3. Tissue Level
    • 4. Organ Level
    • 5. Organ System Level
  3. How do the level of organizations  relate to the level above and below it?
    Beginning From the first level to the  last level, they increase in unity and form/generate/create the next level of structure.
  4. What are the 4 tissues and their Characteristic?
    • 1. Nerve-it transmit signals for communication.
    • 2. Epithelia-it lines/covers and forms barriers and glands.
    • 3. Muscle-Contracts, voluntary or involuntary.
    • 4. Connective-Anchors  & Links body parts
  5. What are the necessary Life functions? total of 8
    • 1. Maintaining Boundaries
    • 2. Movement or Contractibility
    • 3. Responsiveness  ( irritability )
    • 4. Digestion
    • 5. Metabolism
    • 6. Excretion  
    • 7. Growth
    • 8. Reproduction
  6. Maintaining boundaries of " necessary Life functions"
    • Each Cell maintains a boundary to separate the inside of cell from its surroundings. It keeps the concentration of materials in the cell proper for metabolism reaction.
    • The body must maintain a boundary to separate the organism from its surroundings. this Protects the internal body from toxins in the environment and preserves proper concentration of water and solutes.
  7. What allows organisms to relocate/reposition? It occurs when blood-food and Urine are propelled thru internal organs.
    Movement or contractibility  part of the Necessary Life Funtions
  8. Which section of the Necessary Life Function senses change to the environment and then responds to them?
    Responsiveness/Irritability section of the Necessary Life Functions
  9. Which is the process of breaking down ingested food to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the Blood? Part of the Necessary Life Functions
  10. Metabolism ( The Necessary Life Function )
    • Includes all chemical reaction that occurs with in the body cells.
    • Example: Catabolism and Anabolism
  11. What happens during Catabolism?
    substances are broken down
  12. What happens during Anabolism?
    forming more complete structures from simpler substances.
  13. during what Necessary Life Function the process of remaining waste from the body occurs?
  14. In which Necessary Life Function increases the size of body ( increasing the number of cells ) or the organism occur?
  15. The Necessary Life Functions-Reproduction
    Cellular reproduction replaces old, inefficient cells. Its responsible for producing off spring and perpetuating the species.
  16. What is 96% of the human made up of? total of 4
    • Nitrogen
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon
  17. Atoms are arranged into how many parts? total of 4
    • 1. Proteins
    • 2. Carbohydrates
    • 3. Fats
    • 4. Nucleicacids
  18. How many different types of cells does the Human have?
  19. External Environment of a Cell
    Is an area surrounding an Organism. " Molecules in a multi-cellular organism are not in contact with the external environment" The liquid is called Extracelluar Fluid (ECF )
  20. Internal Environment of a cell
    is the watery fluid surrounding each cell within the organism. Thru here cells obtain nutrients and dispose of waste. Liquid is called Intracellular Fluid ( ICF )
  21. What are the components for ECF and ICF? Total of 4
    • 1. Plasma
    • 2. interstitial ( Tissue/intercellular)
    • 3. Lymph
    • 4.  Transcellular Fluid
  22. The internal environment must maintain a composition able to support life. What are they? Total of 2
    • 1. Nutrients  are taken in
    • 2. Wastes are disposed of
  23. What is Homeostasis?
    is the maintenance of constant conditions in the internal environment. Occurs when all body Systems work properly.
  24. What are the regulated factors of the internal environment? total of 7
    • 1. Concentration of nutrients.
    • 2. Concentration of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
    • 3. Concentration of Wastes.
    • 4. pH
    • 5. Concentration of Water, salt, and Electrolytes
    • 6. Volumes & Pressure
    • 7. Temperature
  25. What are the stages of the Homeostatic Control System? total of 3
    • 1. Detects changes.
    • 2. Integrates information with other information
    • 3. Creates Change: adjust body activity to restore desired value
  26. Where the is intrinsic control systems ( local )?
    This is built into or inherent in an organ
  27. Where is the Extrinsic Control Systems ( systemic )
    • Outside of the organ which is altered .
    • --Nervous and Endocrine.
    • ___Allows coordination of multiple organs.
  28. What is Reflex Arc?
    Reflex Arc is the nerve pathway for the impulse that cause a reflex action.
  29. What are the minimum components  of the Reflex Arc? total of 5
    • 1. Sensory Receptor
    • 2. An Afferent Neuron
    • 3. An Integration Center
    • 4. An Efferent
    • 5. An Effector Organ
  30. Sensory Receptor of Reflex Arc?
    it senses the stimulus
  31. Afferent Neuron of Reflex Arc
    Sends the message to the central Nervous system
  32. An Integration Center of Reflex Arc
    Central Nervous System  sends out an appropriate response
  33. An Efferent Neuron of Reflex Arc
    this carries the response out to the body
  34. An Effector Organ of Reflex Arc
    Produces the response
  35. The Reflex arcs can be simple or complex. What are the two?
    • 1. Monosynaptic
    • 2. Polysynaptic
  36. What has one afferent neuron, one efferent neuron and one synapse?
  37. What has several interneurons connecting the afferent and efferent neurons and two or more synapse?
  38. What is the Negative FeedBack
    • Most Homeostatic Control Relies on this. The Factor deviates from Normal.
    • *A response is triggered.
    • ----An adjustment is made to oppose the deviation.
  39. Steps of Negative Feedback. Total of 3
    • 1.  Receptors monitor the factors.
    • 2. The Integrator/control Center compares information from the sensor and the desired set point.
    • 3. An effector brings the change
  40. Positive Feedback
    • Mechanism amplify the original change.
    • It's used in female reproduction system.
    • _____Parturition
    • _____Blood Clotting
  41. The Role of Hypothalamus in maintaining correct  body temperature?
    • The Hypothalamus is the body's thermostat. It receives information from all over the body and adjust heat-gain and heat-loss mechanism.
    • It can detect changes as small as 0.01 celcius
  42. We have temperature sensitive receptors all over our body. Which ones? total of 3
    • 1. Thermoreceptors
    • 2. Central Thermoreceptors in the Hypothalamus and abdominal organs.
    • 3. Peripheral Thermoreceptors located in the skin.
  43. The Cell Theory-What each of the four points with in means. Total of 4
    • 1. Every living organism consist of one or more cells.
    • 2. The cell is the structural and functional unit of all organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life, individually alive even as part of a multicelled organism.
    • 3. all Living cells come from division of other, pre-existing cells.
    • 4. Cells Contain hereditary material, which they pass to their offspring during division.
  44. Prokaryotic
    • Are single celled and the simplest life form .
    • Most metabolically diverse forms of life.
    • They inhibit nearly all of earths environment.
    • Prokaryote=before the nucleus.
  45. What Starts life  with a nucleus? only cell humans have. They have many organelles. Most have a vital roles in keeping the cell's metabolism running.
    Eukaryotic Cells
  46. What do most of our cells have? total of 3
    • 1. Plasma Membrane
    • 2. Nucleus
    • 3. Cytoplasm
  47. What are the functions of the plasma Membrane?
    This is a thin structure surrounding the cell. Its main role is to separate the Intracellular Fluid from the Extracellular fluid. It selectively allows materials to enter/exit the cell. Also helps the cell attach to adjacent cells and monitor the cells environment.
  48. The arrangements of the components of the plasma membrane. total of 7
    • 1. Phospholipids
    • 2. Cholesterol Molecules
    • 3. Proteins
    • 4. Membrane Carbohydrates
    • 5. The lipid by-layers
    • 6. Membrane Proteins
    • 7. Peripheral
  49. this has a Polar head ( Hydrophilic phosphate )located on the outside- and non-polar tail (hydrophobic phosphate ) located on the inside. They assemble into a bilayer in the plasma membrane.
  50. The are located between the phospholipids and prevent them from packing tightly.
    -increases membrane fluidity
    -flexible member is essential for cell function
    Cholesterol molecules
  51. These are embedded in the plasma membrane.
    Some span the thickness of the membrane, others are attached to the surface. it acts as enzymes and transports molecules receptors and more. Surfaces are exposed to ICF and ECF
  52. These are attached to the outer surface of the membrane. Allows for self-recognition and cell to cell interaction
    membrane Carbohydrates
  53. These are integral ( trans-membrane ). Embedded in the phospholipids bilayer. Can only be removed by disrupting the entire membrane surface. they are exposed to ICF and ECF
    membrane proteins
  54. they are loosely bound to integral proteins. Can be removed without destroying the membrane.
  55. This anchors adjacent cells. Cytoskeletal filaments stretch across the interior of the cell connecting plaques. This strengthen the tissue. Very strong and found mostly in tissues that stretch often. located in the heart skin and uterus
    Desmosomes of cell to cell junction
  56. Adjacent cells are bound together so materials cannot pas between the cells. found in sheets of epithelial tissue. It covers the surface of the body and line cavities. Occludin proteins fuse adjacent cells together at kiss sites. prevents uncontrolled passage of molecules between cells
    Tight Junctions of Cell to Cell junctions
  57. Adjacent cells are linked together by connexons so materials can pass between the cells. A connexon from each cell joins to form a tunnel. Small water-soluble molecules can pass through the tunnel. This allows passage of molecules and ions between cells without the ECF. These are common in cardiac and smooth muscle. Allows for coordinated contractions
    Gap Junction of Cell to Cell junctions
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Lecture one study guide
Professor Christine Lima, Physiology
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