Russian Grammar (In progress)

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Russian Grammar (In progress)
2014-07-15 23:10:55
Russian Language Grammar

Russian grammar notes from "The New Penguin Russian Course" by Nicholas J. Brown. (Currently through Chapter 4.)
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  1. Feminine Nouns
    • Includes those ending in 'а' or 'я', except for those referring to males.
    • Most nouns ending in ь (soft sign) are female
    • Most nouns referring to females, regardless of ending.
    • Pronoun: она
  2. Masculine Nouns
    • Normally end with consonant or 'й'.
    • Some ending in ь are masculine, i.e. день
    • Most nouns referring to males including proper names.
    • Days, towns and languages are included.
    • Pronoun: он
  3. Neuter Nouns
    • End in 'о' or 'е'
    • Includes those ending in 'и' 'у' and 'ю' which are often foreign borrowed words.
    • Pronoun: оно
  4. Russian does not have a verb for the present tense of _______
    'to be' (am, is, are, etc..)
  5. How are articles such as 'a' and 'the' indicated in Russian?
    They are implied by the noun since Russian does not have articles.
  6. What are the three Russian genders and their pronouns?
    • Male (ои - he)
    • Female (оиа - she)
    • Neuter (оио - it)
  7. What are the eight Russian personal pronouns?
    • ты - You (familiar)
    • вы - You (unfamiliar or plural)
    • мы - We
    • я - I
    • он - he
    • она - she
    • оно - it
    • они - they
  8. Russian infinitive verb forms (i.e. to walk, to speak) normally end in ______
  9. To conjugate a verb in Russian is to ....
    Determine the stem or basic form of the verb and apply the correct ending based on the pronoun.
  10. How is the verb stem found in the majority of Russian verbs?
    • By removing the -ть from the end.
    • Example: знать 'to know', stem: зна я знаю 'I know.' Вы знаете 'You know.'
  11. What three pronouns always result in the same verb ending?
  12. What are the conjugations for the verb знать (to know)?
    • я - ю
    • ты - ешь
    • он/она/оно - ет
    • мы - ем
    • вы - ете
    • они - ют
  13. If е is stressed in a verb ending, it becomes the letter _____
  14. A syllable with the letter _____ is always stressed.
  15. A verb is negated in Russian by _______
    • Putting the word не before the word.
    • я не знаю (I don't know.)