Lecture two study guide

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Lecture two study guide
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2014-07-16 00:34:08
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CCRISummerPhysiology
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Physiology
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Professor Christine Lima, Physiology
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  1. Most cells contain a single unit of this which contains DNA. It Protects the DNA . It controls the transmission and expression of genetic information
    Function of Nucleus for the Cell
  2. Understand the role of the organelles in the cytosol
    The cytosol is the fluid filling the cell. Organelles float in the cytosol. There are many nutrients , ions, and energy stored in the cytosol.
  3. This is formed by many proteins. Allowing cell support, intracellular transport, cellular movement, and adhesions with other cells.
    Cytoskeleton Network
  4. They are short-Hair like projections. They propel substances on cell surfaces.
    Cilia
  5. They are long tail-like projections. They provide motility to sperm
    Flagellum
  6. Type of Organelle. they are free floating in cytoplasm or connected to endoplasmic reticulum. they are made of ribosomaIRNA. The site of protein synthesis
    Ribosomes
  7. Type of Organelle. A pair of two rod-like structure. Distributes chromosomes during cell division.
    Centrioles
  8. they are connected, membrane bound sacs, canals, and vesicles. Also a transport system.
    Endoplasmic Recticulum
  9. it has attached ribosomes . Protein Synthesis and transport as well. Type of Endoplasmic Recticulum
    Rough Endoplasmic Recticulum
  10. Type of Endoplasmic Recticulum.  It has no attached ribosomes. Lipid synthesis and break down of drugs.
    Smooth Endoplasmic Recticulum
  11. Type of Organelle.  Its stack of flattened, membranous sacs. Modified packages and delivers proteins.
    Golgi Apparatus
  12. Type of Organelle. They contain  enzymes to degrade debris.
    Lysosomes
  13. Type of organelle. They contain enzymes to break down waste molecules.
    Peroxisomes
  14. Under Organelles. They are enclosed by double membrane layer. Generates energy from nutrients molecules.
    Mitochondria
  15. The total of all reactions occurring in a cell. What is it called?
    Cell's Metabolism
  16. What does chemical reaction involve?
    It involves the transformation of molecules.
  17. What affects the rate of a Cell's Metabolism? total of 3
    • 1. Concentrations of products and reactions.
    • 2. Temperature
    • 3. Height of the activation energy barrier
  18. Molecules must collide to react-Higher concentration-more frequent collisions. Reactant concentration increases-Reaction proceeds faster toward production. Production concentration increases-reaction proceeds slower toward products or reverse direction
    Concentration of products and reactions. This affects the rate of cell's metabolism
  19. This affects the rate of cell metabolism. Higher temperature increases reaction rates- Molecules move faster and collide more frequently
    Temperature
  20. This affects the rate of cell metabolism. Higher activation energy=less reactions occur
    Height of the activation energy barrier
  21. What roles do enzyme play in a cell's metabolism?
    Enzymes act as catalyst. They make a reaction occur faster than it would on its own by lowering activation energy. The concentration of enzymes affect most reactions in our body
  22. Understand the terms substrate, product, active site. total of 3 process
    • 1. the molecule with enzymes interacts with its substrate.
    • 2. It fits into the enzyme active site.
    • 3. the enzyme acts on the substrate to create a product
  23. What is the binding step vs the catalytic step?
    • 1. Binding step-substrate binds enzyme
    • 2. Catalytic step-substrate is converted to product.
    • 3. Product is then released.
  24. Why can an enzyme be used many times?
    Enzymes are not changed/consumed after participation of the reaction.
  25. These are protein made by cells in our bodies and all living organisms
    enzymes
  26. They are a type of enzyme. Cannot catalyze reactions but are needed for some reactions to occur.  They bring necessary chemical group
    Coenzymes
  27. Some enzyme  requires this in order to work. Its non-protein components. Has Ions or Vitamins
    Cofactor
  28. What types of reactions our metabolism include? total of 3
    • 1. Reactants go into a reaction, products come out. -A  + B ---> C + D
    • 2. Many Biological reactions are reversible.
    • -A + B <===> C + D
    • 3. Most of the reactions occurring in our cells are parts of metabolic pathways.
    • -A + X ---> B ---> C ---> D + Y
  29. Type of reaction of metabolism. they are reactions that build larger molecules from smaller ones.      A + B ----> AB
    Anabolic
  30. Type of metabolic reaction. They are reactions that create smaller molecules by breaking down larger ones.     AB -----> A + B
    Catabolic
  31. When does Chemicals Equilibrium occur?
    • Chemical Equilibrium  occurs when the reactions proceeds in both directions at equal rates.
    • A + B <===> C + D
  32. Most of them  are proteins . They are only able to react with one specific molecule.
       - Each reaction needs its own ____
    ENZYME
  33. TRUE OF FALSE. Denatured enzymes CAN WORK.
    • False.
    • DENATURED ENZYMES CANNOT WORK
  34. What can Denature enzymes.
    • Loss of homeostasis.
    • Temperature
    • pH
    • Salt Concentractions
  35. True of False. The concentration of an enzyme affects most reactions in our body.
    TRUE
  36. What do enzymes act as? This makes a reaction occur faster than it would on it own by lowering activation energy.
    Enzymes act as Catalysts
  37. True or False. Our Metabolic reactions either build or break down molecules. types . Anabolic and Catabolic
    True
  38. This is the ability to do work
    Energy
  39. True or False. Cells work when thy contract, replicate, produce proteins, engulf particles, etc. etc
    True
  40. Our metabolic reactions either cause a release of energy or require an input of energy. What are both called?
    • 1. Exergonic- releases energy.
    • 2. Endergonic- requires energy
  41. True of False. Products of an exergonic reaction have less energy than the reactants.--- Energy released. example ATP---> ADP + Energy
    True
  42. True or False. Products of an endergonic reaction have more energy than the reactants. ---Energy put in.   Example. ADP + Energy ----> ATP
    TRUE
  43. Many Cellular reactions are oxidation-reduction reactions. What is it also called
    Redox Reactions
  44. How are electrons transferred?
    Electrons are transferred from one molecule to another
  45. what is it called when electrons are removed?
    Oxidation
  46. What is it called when electrons are received?
    Reduction
  47. What is one of the mayor sets of reactions occurring in our cells? where Glucose is broken down, ATP is produced
    Cellular Respiration
  48. What does ATP stands for
    Adenosine Triphosphate
  49. What does ADP Stands for?
    Adenosine Diphosphate
  50. True of False. Energy is released when Glucose is broken down. Energy is caught by ADP -> ATP is formed .
    TRUE
  51. When do Cells break down ATP ?
    Cells Break down  ATP when they need energy for reactions or cell processes

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