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Relative Risk (RR)
 RR = a / (a+b)
 c / (c+d)
 RR = 1: no difference between groups
 RR < 1:less likely to occur in treatment group
 RR > 1:more likely to occur in treatment group

Relative Risk Reduction (RRR)
RRR = 1  RR
OR
 RRR = (% risk in control  % risk in treatment)
 % risk in control

Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR)
ARR = % risk in control  % risk in treatment

Number Needed to Treat (NNT)
NNT = 1 / ARR
OR
NNT = 1 / (% risk in control  % risk in treatment)

Odds Ratio (OR)
OR = ad / bc

Hazard Ratio (HR)
HR = hazard treatment arm / hazard control arm

nominal data
 consists of categories: ex; gender, ethnicity
 * numbers have no true numerical value, ex; male  1, female  2

ordinal data
ranked categories: like NYHA scale, or pain scale

continuous data
 infinite number of possible values, ex; height, weight, A1C, blood pressure
 interval data: difference between 2 values, ex; celsius temp
 ratio data: height, weight, time, length

