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SCI -- level where you get an UMN/spastic bowel vs LMN/flacid bowl, and the primary removal method for each
- UMN/spastic: at T11 and above
- intact spinal defecation reflexes, so the primary method is digital anal stim
- LMN/flacid: T12 and below -- manual removal may be required
most effective screening ages for girls and boys for scoliosis
- girls: 9-11
- boys: 11-13
- bc you want to catch them just before the pubescent growth spurt
excessive subtalar pronation is associated with what in talus?
in tibia, femur, pelvis?
- talus: adduction, inversion, PF
- tibia, femur, pelvis: IR
ER of tibia, femur, pelvis is associated with what in subtalar
how to make estim (the kind that's creating a muscle contraction) more comfortable without compromising the therapy?
- decrease the pulse duration
- could reduce intensity, but that will reduce therapeutic effect
- decreasing the pulse rate would decrease quality of contraction
esophageal pain refers pain to where
mid back, head, neck
spleen refers pain where?
- L shoulder or abdomen
- diaphram can also refer pain t shoudler
colon or appendix refers pain where?
lower back, pelvis, or sacrum
gallgbladder refers pain where?
mid back and R scap
- proprioception, VOR, contol muscle tone in response to vestibular stim
- coordinates muscle actions to maintain postural coordination and balance control along with eye muscle control
spinocerebellum / paleocerebellum controls what?
muscle tone and synergistic mvmnts of ipsilat extremities
basal gangila deficits present as
rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor, postural instability
usually the earliest indication of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
- intermittent claudication
- usually in in calf, but can be in thigh, hip, or butt
constipation can refer pain to
- ant hip, groin, or thigh
- and there'll be abdominal pain and tenderness
if there's a lesion in the brainstem, tell me about the facial signs
they'll be contralat to limb signs
L2 nerve root compression pain is where?
back and front of thigh to knee
pain in butt, thigh, and post leg is characteristic of what nerve root compression
pain in bladder can refer where?
medial thigh and leg
C spine coupled motions
- occiput - C2: SB and rot contralat
- C2-C7: SB and rot ipsilat (regardless of bent/neutral)
2 tests for pronator teres syndrome
- PT passively supinates
- pt pronates against resistance
- either can compress the nerve
ankylosing spondylitis - what, who, when
- inflam disease of axillary skeleton --> spinal fusion
- men in their 2nd or 3rd decade
4 sequellae to long toerm steroid use
- decreased bone density
- intercostal muscle wasting
- BP > 140/90
- barrel chest (which is seen in emphysema, not asthma)
after a meniscal repair, how long should a pt be nonweight bearing?
bruits are heard with
- peripheral vascular disease
- I think any narrowing of artery or vein?
slipped capital femoral epiphysis vs legg-calve-perthes presentation
- SCFE: 10-16 y/o, m:f 3:1, painful limited ER and abd, worse in wt bearing
- LCP: 3-12 y/o, m:f 4:1, painful limited ER and abd, worse in wt bearing
oligoarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)
- aka pauciarticular JRA
- some combo of knees, ankles, wrists, elbosw are affected
- hips are usually spared
AKA pt, a prosthetic knee set too far anterior to the trochanter-to-knee line will result in what at the knee
AKA pt, a prosthetic knee set too far posterior to the trochanter-to-knee line will result in what at the knee
too much stability ... difficulty flexing it
gait in Berg vs Tinetti?
- Berg doesn't look at it
- Tinetti examines it
name a red flag for aortic aneurysm
throbbing LBP that occurs only w activites that increase HR
sign of what
- flexion of neck --> electric shock-like pain running down spine and into LEs
- posterior column damage in the spinal cord
- seen in MS
paresthesia vs dysesthesia
- para: abnormal sensations like numbness, prickling, tingling
- dys: abnormal and unpleasant sensations like burning or pins/needles
- adverse reaction to heat
- worsening of neuro symptoms
- seen w MS
thoracic spine rule of 3
- T1-3: SPs at level of TPs
- T4-6: SPs half level below
- T7-9: SPs full level below
- T10: full
- T11: half
- T12: same
when SPs are lower, PA pressures on them will just make them glide into and compress the SP bellow, so no arthrokinematic glide will occur
- run a fingernail along the tibial crest
- pos: DF of halux (like Babinski)
- indicates damage to pyramidal tract
- (Babs is for spinal cord, brain, UMNL)
extrapyramidal system -- 4 functions
- (1) selective activation of movements and supression of others
- (2) Initiation of movements
- (3) setting rate and force of movements
- (4) coordinating movements.
- Damage to the extrapyramidal system, but especially damage to the basal ganglia, will result in movement disorders known as dyskinesias.
ability to recognize objects placed in the hand
involvement of CN IX --> what
- slight dysphagia
- loss of tast in post 1/3 of tongue
- loss of gag reflex
act or process of swallowing
involvement of CN XI --> what
- minor problems in swallowing/deglutition and phonation
- weakness in ipsilat trap and SCM
facial repercussions of impaired CNX
- paralysis of soft palate
hematocrit norms (these are right, the other card is wrong)
staphlococcal infection w small macules (unraised spots) or vesicles (small blisters)
- contagious skin infection, produces blisters
- usually in preschoolers, also seen in older athletes in contact sports
forward trunk lean in gait compensates for what weakness
backward trunk lean in gait compensates for what weakness
excessive hip flexion in gait can be a compensation for what?
hyaluronidase is used via iontophoresis for what?
when to use wide spacing of biofeedback electrodes
- looking for a motion (shoulder elev) rather than activation of one specific muscle (use narrow spacing for a specific muscle, even if it's a big one like the quads)
- a muscle that has decreased ability to recruit MUs or has a decreased number and size of MUs, use wide spacing and high sensitivity
L face and R body loss of pain and temp -- lesion is where?
- L posterolateral medulla
- sensory tracks (fascic cuneatus/gracilis) cross in medulla, so a lesion sup would have entirely contralat symptoms
female athlete triad
- disordered eating habits
- common in females 14-20 y/o
isometric vs dymanic exercise --- changes in HR and arterial BP
isometric exercise raise them more bc dynamic exercises facil circulation while static exercise hinders blood flow