Windows 2012 r2

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Windows 2012 r2
2014-10-06 17:00:39
Windows 2012

Windows 2008
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  1. Windows Server Editions
    Standard Edt
    Datacenter Edt
    Foundation Edt
    Essentials Edt
    • This is the enterprise-class cloud server and is the flagship OS. This chapter
    • will cover in detail the changes affecting the Standard edition, because this is
    • the most popular choice. This server is feature rich and will handle just about
    • all your general networking needs. This server can be used for multipurpose or
    • individual roles. It can be stripped down to its core for an even more secure
    • and better-performing workhorse.

    • This is Microsoft's "heavy-duty" virtualization server version. This is best
    • used in highly virtualized environments because it sports unlimited virtual
    • instance rights. That's right, I said unlimited! This is really the only
    • difference between Datacenter and Standard, and of course this is reflected in
    • the price; Datacenter costs about four times as much as Standard edition.

    • Foundation contains most core features found in the other editions, but there
    • are some important limitations you should understand before you deploy it.
    • Active Directory certificate service roles are limited to only certificate
    • authorities. Here are some other limitations:

    The maximum number of users is 15.

    • The maximum number of Server Message Block (SMB) connections is
    • 30.

    • The maximum number of Routing and Remote Access (RRAS)
    • connections is 50.

    • The maximum number of Internet Authentication Service (IAS)
    • connections is 10.

    • The maximum number of Remote Desktop Services (RDS) Gateway
    • connections is 50.

    Only one CPU socket is allowed.

    • It cannot host virtual machines or be used as a guest virtual
    • machine.

    • Essentials Edition
    • This server is intended for very small companies
    • with fewer than 25 users and 50 devices. This is a very cost-effective way to
    • provide small business networking. Here are some but not all new features of
    • Windows Server 2012 R2 Essentials:

    Improved client deployment

    Can be installed as virtual machine or on a server

    User group management

    Improved file history

    Includes BranchCache

    Uses the dashboard to manage mobile devices

    Includes System Restore
  2. LDAP
    lightweight direct access protocol
    • )
    • is an open network protocol standard designed to provide access to distributed
    • directories. LDAP provides a mechanism for querying and modifying information
    • that resides in a directory information tree (DIT)
  3. DIT
    directory information tree
    • A directory information tree typically contains a broad
    • range of information about different types of network objects including users,
    • printers, applications, and other network resources. LDAP is described through
    • four basic models: Information, Naming, Functional, and Security. The
    • combination of these models introduces a nomenclature that describes entries
    • and their attributes, and provides methods to query and manipulate their
    • values.
  4. LDAP is described by a combination of the following
    -an informational model that describes the structure of information in a directory information tree

    -a naming model that describes how information is organized and referenced

    -a functional model that describes what can be done with the information

    -a security model that describes how informaiton is protected in the directory information tree
  5. Storage tiers
    moves frequently accessed data to solid-state drives and infrequently accessed data to slower drives
  6. import-module servermanager
    if you have with both windows 2012 and windows 2008 you must run the import-module before using powershell
  7. write back cache
    reduces latency of writes by buffering small random writes to solid-state drives
  8. what replaces the remove-windowsfeature cmdlet

    • Note:
    • two ways to remove Windows Explorer, windows internet explorer and all related components and files from a full installation of Windows server
    • - run uninstall-windowsfeature or use server manager to remove teh server graphical shell
  9. sconfig.cmd

    will display the server configuration menu on a windows 2012 r2 server core

    use to set a static ip address on a windows server 2012 r2 server core
  10. mirror spaces

    Dual parity
    Will support up to two disk failures,

    protects against simultaneous physical disk failures by storing two copies of parity information in the parity space
  11. djoin /provision

    djoin /requestODJ
    performs an offline domain join during an unattended operating system installation of a server core version of windows server 2012 r2

    provides an offline domain join of a server core version of windows server 2012 r2 and loads the computer metadata from a files so it can be used to add teh %systemroot% folder of the computer that you want to join to the domain
  12. simple spaces

    parity spaces
    storage layout from a storage pool best suited for temporaty data, such as video rendering files, image editor scratch files and intermediary compiler object files

    • storage layout from a storage pool is best suited for archival data and streaming media, such as music and videos
    • note: supports a failover cluster in Windows server 2012 r2, but not windows server 2012
  13. rename-computer
    use to rename a windows server 2012 r2 server core server

    use to add a computer to a domain such that you will be prompted to supply credentials to join the domain
  14. configure-smremoting.exe -enable

    enables server manager remote management and enables all required firewall rule exceptions

    enables windows powershell remoting on a windows server 2012 R2
  15. Windows Server migration tools
    Windows Server Migration Tools, available as a feature in Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2012, allows an administrator to migrate some server roles, features, operating system settings, shares, and other data from computers that are running certain editions of Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012, or Windows Server 2012 R2 to computers that are running Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server 2012 R2

    • -Four steps for installation
    • -install Windows Server Migration tools on desination servers that run windows server 2012 r2
    • -create deployment folders on destination servers that run windows server 2012 r2, for compying to source servers
    • -copy deployment folders from destinations servers to source servers
    • -register windows server migraration tolls on source servers.
  16. why does a striped volume offer better write performance that a raid -5 volume
    a raid-5 volume writes both parity blocks and data blocks, so it does not offer the write performance of a striped volume, which only writes data bocks.
  17. DSC
    Desired State Configuration

    DSC is a new management platform in Windows PowerShell that enables deploying and managing configuration data for software services and managing the environment in which these services run. DSC provides a set of Windows PowerShell language extensions, new Windows PowerShell cmdlets, and resources that you can use to declaratively specify how you want your software environment to be configured. It also provides a means to maintain and manage existing configurations

    Practical applicationsFollowing are some example scenarios where you can use built-in DSC resources to configure and manage a set of computers (also known as target nodes) in an automated way: Enabling or disabling server roles and features Managing registry settings Managing files and directories Starting, stopping, and managing processes and services Managing groups and user accounts Deploying new software Managing environment variables Running Windows PowerShell scripts Fixing a configuration that has drifted away from the desired state Discovering the actual configuration state on a given nodeIn addition, you can create custom resources to configure the state of any application or system setting.
  18. DISM
    Deployment Image Service and Management
    installs, uninstalls, configures, and updates the features and packages in offline Windows® images and offline Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE) images. The commands and options that are available for servicing an image depend on which Windows operating system you are servicing (Windows® 7, Windows Vista® with Service Pack 2 (SP2), Windows Vista® with Service Pack 1 (SP1), Windows Server® 2008 R2, Windows Server® 2008, or Windows PE), and whether the image is offline or a running operating system. All commands work on an offline Windows image. Subsets of the commands are available for servicing a running operating system.The DISM command-line options are global and can be used with most servicing command-line options. The servicing command-line options work individually and cannot be used in combination with other servicing command-line options. A Windows image is made available for servicing by mounting the image or specifying a running operating system.DISM replaces several Windows OEM Preinstallation Kit (Windows OPK) tools including PEImg, Intlcfg, and Package Manager.

    • Commands
    • -/mount image use to mount offline windows image
  19. Windows 2012 server core installation and server with a GUI
    When you install Windows Server 2012, you can choose between Server Core Installation and Server with a GUI. The “Server with a GUI” option is the Windows Server 2012 equivalent of the Full installation option available in Windows Server 2008 R2. The “Server Core Installation” option reduces the space required on disk, the potential attack surface, and especially the servicing requirements, so we recommend that you choose the Server Core installation unless you have a particular need for the additional user interface elements and graphical management tools that are included in the “Server with a GUI” option. For this reason, the Server Core installation is now the default. Because you can freely switch between these options at any time later, one approach might be to initially install the Server with a GUI option, use the graphical tools to configure the server, and then later switch to the Server Core Installation option.
  20. how do you remove a binary files to free up space on the server when you uninstall a role or feature with teh windows powershell cmdlet Uninstall-windows feature <featurename>
    use the remove option with the Uninstall-windowsfeature cmdlet
  21. Windows Powershell Web Access
    is a new feature in Windows Server® 2012 that acts as a Windows PowerShell gateway, providing a web-based Windows PowerShell console that is targeted at a remote computer. It enables IT Pros to run Windows PowerShell commands and scripts from a Windows PowerShell console in a web browser, with no Windows PowerShell, remote management software, or browser plug-in installation necessary on the client device. All that is required to run the web-based Windows PowerShell console is a properly-configured Windows PowerShell Web Access gateway, and a client device browser that supports JavaScript® and accepts cookies

    • Configure Windows PowerShell Web Access
    • -install windows PS WA
    • -configure GW
    • -configure authorization rules that allow users access to the web-based windows powershell console
  22. new-netlbfoteam
    powershell cmdlet creates a new NIC team that consists of one or more network adapters
  23. net localgroup administrators /add <domainName><username>
    command to add a domain user account to the local administrators group on a windows server 2012 r2 server core server
  24. in-place upgrades are not supported
    • from a 32 bit edition of windows server
    • from a one language to another
    • from one build type to another
    • from a server core installation directly to a full installation (GUI Mode)
    • from a pre-release version of Windows server 2012
  25. NIC Teaming
    allows the serve to have the ability to operate multiple NICs as a single interface
  26. GUID Partition Table (GPT)

    Note: supports 2TB read up on more information

    GUID Partition Table (GPT) is a standard for the layout of the partition table on a physical hard disk, using globally unique identifiers (GUID). Although it forms a part of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) standard (Unified EFI Forum proposed replacement for the PC BIOS), it is also used on some BIOS systems because of the limitations of master boot record (MBR) partition tables, which use 32 bits for storing logical block addresses (LBA) and size information.

    A master boot record (MBR) is a special type of boot sector at the very beginning of partitioned computer mass storage devices like fixed disks or removable drives intended for use with IBM PC-compatible systems and beyond. The concept of MBRs was publicly introduced in 1983 with PC DOS 2.0.The MBR holds the information on how the logical partitions, containing file systems, are organized on that medium. Besides that, the MBR also contains executable code to function as a loader for the installed operating system—usually by passing control over to the loader's second stage, or in conjunction with each partition's volume boot record (VBR). This MBR code is usually referred to as a boot loader.
  27. recover lost command prompt on a server core installation
    crtl alt delete select task managerfrom file menu choose run new task and enter cmd.exe
  28. Vm snapshot
    in windows 2012, operations that keep the virtual machine and any remaining snapshots synchronized after deleting a snapshoot occur while the VM remains running

    • -windows 2008 comparable to snapshot
    • checkpoint-vm  (cmdlet)

    • cmdlet
    • get-vm computername <name of hyper-v server> | checkpoint-vm
  29. cmdlet will remove a network adapter member from a switch team
  30. single-root I/O virtualization
    The single root I/O virtualization (SR-IOV) interface is an extension to the PCI Express (PCIe) specification. SR-IOV allows a device, such as a network adapter, to separate access to its resources among various PCIe hardware functions. These functions consist of the following types:A PCIe Physical Function (PF). This function is the primary function of the device and advertises the device's SR-IOV capabilities. The PF is associated with the Hyper-V parent partition in a virtualized environment.One or more PCIe Virtual Functions (VFs). Each VF is associated with the device's PF. A VF shares one or more physical resources of the device, such as a memory and a network port, with the PF and other VFs on the device. Each VF is associated with a Hyper-V child partition in a virtualized environment.Each PF and VF is assigned a unique PCI Express Requester ID (RID) that allows an I/O memory management unit (IOMMU) to differentiate between different traffic streams and apply memory and interrupt translations between the PF and VFs. This allows traffic streams to be delivered directly to the appropriate Hyper-V parent or child partition. As a result, nonprivileged data traffic flows from the PF to VF without affecting other VFs. SR-IOV enables network traffic to bypass the software switch layer of the Hyper-V virtualization stack. Because the VF is assigned to a child partition, the network traffic flows directly between the VF and child partition. As a result, the I/O overhead in the software emulation layer is diminished and achieves network performance that is nearly the same performance as in nonvirtualized environments.
  31. Vshpere directories
    • - recommended for servers needing more than 2 TB of storage
    •     - if extends the VHD format with new capabilities, such as performance improvements, data corruption prevention mechanisms, and a 16tb maximum allowable size

    - is a file format which represents a virtual hard disk drive
  32. Fixed size virtual hard disk
    Dynamically Expanding virtual hard disk
    - a fixed size disk uses the size of the virtual hard disk and does not change when data is deleted or added

    -a dynamically expanding disk is created small, and changes as data is added
  33. Generation 1 and 2
    If you use a virtual hard disk in .vhdx format (the newer format) as the starting point for the virtual machine or virtual machine template, when you reach the second page of the wizard (the Identity page), you have two choices for the virtual machine or virtual machine template: Generation 1 or Generation 2. By default, Generation 1 is selected.
  34. Smart paging
    hyper-V feature uses disk resources as additiona, temporary memory when more memory is required to restart a virtual machine

    feature used to bridge the memory gap between minimum memory and startup memory, and allow vm to restart reliably
  35. resource metering

    resource control
    -hyper-v role allows you to charge departments based on how much resources the virtual machines assigned to a particular use

    -hyper-v role allows you to specify limits on the physical hardware, such as setting the relative weight and the percentage of total system resources on a processor
  36. why do pass-through disks give better performance than virtual disks for a virtual machine on a hyper-v host
    pass-through disks allow for the VM to get raw disk access, which is important when you have a storage operating system controlling the drives
  37. port mirroring
    role allows traffic sent to or from a hyper-V virtual switch port to be copied and sent to a mirror port

    cmdlet  set-wmnetworkadapter
  38. integration services
    role allows you to make services such as volume shadow copy services, time synchronization, and operating system shutdown available to a vm

    • list below:
    • OS shutdown
    • time synchronization
    • data exchange
    • heartbeat
    • backup (volume snapshot)
  39. Storage quality of service (QoS) for hyper-V
    feature of hyper-v in a multitenant enviroment ensures that VMs belonging to one tenant do not consume excessive storage resources, affecting vms that belong to another tenant
  40. which local resources can be redirected to a virtual machine session through vm connection tool through enhanced session mode
    • display configuration
    • audio
    • printers
    • clipboard
    • smart cards
    • usb devices and drives
    • supported plug and play devices
  41. new-netswitchteam
    creates a new switch team that is manipulated by a forwarding extension in the hyper-V extensible switch
  42. Port virtual local area network (PVLAN)
    hyper-V role addresses the scalability issues of vlans where tenants each have multiple virtual subnets
  43. pass through disks
    A pass-through disk is the term used to identify a physical disk that is not a member of a pool, but is used as a storage source in a virtual disk. Pass-through disks are previously used physical disks with an existing file system and disk format (such as Windows, UNIX, AIX, Linux, Solaris, HP). SANsymphony-V software can migrate these disks into the configuration without modifying the structure of the existing data.Pass-through disks can be used to create single, dual, or mirrored virtual disks. See Creating Virtual Disks for instructions on creating a virtual disk with a pass-through disk. For more information on how pass-through disks can be created from shared physical disks, see Shared Multi-port Array Support.
  44. Winrm

    • Window Management tool
    • this tool will allow remote management of a Windows 2012 core installation. You have to enable remote management of the server by typing
    • C:\Users\tallen>winrm quickconfig WinRM is not set up to allow remote access to this machine for management. The following changes must be made: Create a WinRM listener on HTTP://* to accept WS-Man requests to any IP on this machine. Enable the WinRM firewall exception. Make these changes [y/n]? y WinRM has been updated for remote management. Created a WinRM listener on HTTP://* to accept WS-Man requests to any IP on this machine. WinRM firewall exception enabled.

    • Windows Remote session is used to remote into the server
    • command line:winrs -r:target command
    • is used for servers in a domain
    • command line:
    • C:\Users\Administrator>winrm set winrm/config/client @{TrustedHosts="SEA-DESK155"} Client     NetworkDelayms = 5000     URLPrefix = wsman     AllowUnencrypted = false     Auth         Basic = false         Digest = true         Kerberos = true         Negotiate = true         Certificate = true     DefaultPorts         HTTP = 80         HTTPS = 443     TrustedHosts = SEA-DESK155
  45. remote desktop printer driver
    -allows your server to use a print driver on your workstation to print to a printer the server does not have the driver to the printer

    • you can set GPO to force the server to use the remote printer driver first.  
    • Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Printer Redirection
  46. Install-windowsfeature fs-syncshareservice
    -Installs one or more roles, role services, or features on either the local or a specified remote server that is running Windows Server 2012 R2. This cmdlet is equivalent to and replaces Add-WindowsFeature, the cmdlet that was used to install roles, role services, and features in Windows Server 2008 R2.

    the cmdlet does not install management tools for roles, role services, and features by default. To install management tools such as snap-ins on a target server, you must add the IncludeManagementTools parameter to your command.

    • install Work Folders on a windows 2012 r2
    • server
  47. File Server Resource Manager
    File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools for Windows Server® 2008 that allows administrators to understand, control, and manage the quantity and type of data that is stored on their servers. By using File Server Resource Manager, administrators can place quotas on folders and volumes, actively screen files, and generate comprehensive storage reports. This set of advanced instruments not only helps the administrator efficiently monitor existing storage resources, but it also aids in the planning and implementation of future policy changes
  48. Work Folders
    Work Folders enables IT administrators to provide Information Workers the ability to sync their work data on all their devices wherever they are while remaining in compliance with company policies. This is done by syncing user data from devices to on-premise file servers, which are now extended to include a new sync protocol.

    • Defualt location:
    • %userprofile%\work folders
  49. What group policy setting provides faster access to cached files and redirected folders by providing lower bandwidth usage because users are working offline, even when they are connected through a high-speed network connection
    enablee the always offline mode by using GP to enable the configure slow-link mode policy setting

    computer configuration\polices\administrative templates\network\offline files
  50. if joe has full control permissions to c:\software on the server and read permissions to teh share named software that points to c:\software on that servrer, will joe be able to copy a file to the software share from another computer
    no, joe will only have the effective permissions of read on the share
  51. soft quota
    hard quota
    a soft quota type will allow teh user to exceed the quota limit,  usaully used to monitor storage use before implementing a hard quota type

    a hard quota type will not allow users to exceed the quota limit
  52. What command adds a remote server to the local computer's trustedhosts list in a Windows powershell session
    set-item wsman:\localhost\client\trustedhosts <remote server name> -concatenate-force

    concatenate- link
  53. Server Core installation automatically download windows update
    • using gpo editor and editing the local gpo
    • editing the registry directly by using the registry editor(regedit.exe)
    • centrally deploying these registry entries by using system policy in windows nt 4.0 style
  54. integration Services in Hyper-V manager
    • operating system shutdown
    • time synchronization
    • data exchange
    • heartbeat
    • backup (volume snapshot)
  55. which windows versions can run as a guest OS on a hyper-v host that can use a virtual fibre channel adapter to connect to an attached virtual SAN
    Windows 2008, 2008 r2, 2012 and 2012 r2
  56. DHCP option number