Chapter 19 Respiratory System

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Chapter 19 Respiratory System
2014-07-16 21:32:19
chapter19 respiratory system ICC Davis anatomy physiology
A&P 2
Chapter 19 Respiratory System ICC:Davis Anatomy and Physiology II
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  1. Area at the back of the throat where the mouth and nasal cavity meet
  2. The trachea divides into these right and left branches
  3. Opening in the windpipe
  4. Contains the vocal cords
  5. Tiny air sacs where the exchange of gases between air and blood takes place
  6. Flat sheet of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity
  7. Inflammation of the lining of the brochial tubes
  8. Smaller branches of the bronchi
  9. Flap of tissue which prevents food from entering windpipe during swallowing
  10. Tube leading from larynx to bronchi
  11. Blood vessels surrounding the air sacs
  12. Moist membrane covering the lung and chest cavity wall on each side
  13. Infection of the lungs caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi
  14. Brochial spasm resulting in decreased air movement and air trapped in alveoli
  15. The entire process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells
  16. Movement of air in and out of the lungs
    breathing and ventilation
  17. Exchange of gases between air in the lungs and blood
    external respiration
  18. Exchange of gases between the blood and body cells
    internal respiration
  19. Upper respiratory tract
    • nose
    • nasal cavity
    • sinuses
    • pharynx
  20. Lower respiratory tract
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchial tree
    • lungs
  21. Organs of the respiratory system
    • nose
    • nasal cavities
    • sinuses
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchial tree
    • lungs
  22. Organ of the respiratory system which is supported by muscle, bone and cartilage
  23. What guards the openings of the nostrils?
    Internal hairs
  24. Divides the hollow space of the nasal cavities
  25. Divides the cavity into passageways and supports mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity
    nasal conchae
  26. Filters, warms, and moistens air in the nasal cavity
    mucous membrane
  27. Particles trapped in the nasal cavity are carried where to be swallowed?
  28. Air-filled spaces in maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones
  29. These open into the nasal cavity and are lined with mucous membrane
  30. Functions to reduce the weight of the skull and also affects the way you sound
  31. Passageway with 3 subdivisions which aids in producing sound
  32. What are the three divisions of the pharynx?
    Naso, oro, larynxo
  33. The voice box
  34. Enlargement at the top of the trachea
  35. The passageway for air
  36. Helps prevent foreign objects from entering the trachea
  37. Houses the vocal cords
  38. What structures are associated with the larynx?
    • Epiglottis
    • thyroid
    • cricoid
    • epiglottic
  39. Flaplike structure that covers the glottis during swallowing
  40. Adam's apple, protrudes in the front of the neck
  41. Lies inferior to the thyroid, marks the lowest portion of the larynx
  42. Attached to the border of thyroid cartilage, it supports the epiglottis
  43. These do not function in sound but help to close the larynx during swallowing
    false vocal cords
  44. These make vocal sounds as air passes through the vocal cords
    true vocal cords
  45. Produced due to the tension of the vocal cords
  46. Related to the force of air as it passes through the vocal cords
  47. Windpipe
  48. Found anterior to the esophagus
  49. Extends into the thoracic cavity and branches to the left and right bronchi
  50. What holds the trachea open?
    C-rings of hyaline cartilage
  51. Allows air to bypass an obstruction in the larynx
  52. Branched air passages leading from the trachea to the air sacs
    brochial tree
  53. On the right and left, leads from the trachea to the lungs
    primary bronchi
  54. Connects to a lung lobe, 2 from the left primary bronchi and 3 from the right primary bronchi
    secondary bronchi
  55. Supplies a bronchiopulmonary segment, 10 on the right and 8 on the left
  56. Basic lung unit, each enters a lobule
    intralobular bronchioles
  57. Found in the bronchial tree, there are 50 or more per lobule
    terminal bronchioles
  58. The first branch of the bronchial tree to engage in gas exchange. There are 2 or more from each terminal bronchiole.
    Respiratory bronchioles
  59. 2 to 10 of these branch from each respiratory bronchiole
    alveolar ducts
  60. Thin-walled out-pouchings of the alveolar ducts (looks like a cluster of grapes)
    alveolar sacs
  61. Microscopic air-sacs (one grape)
  62. As tubes of the bronchial tree branch, cartilage decreases and none is present in ____
  63. ____ surrounds the tubes of the bronchial tree down to the respiratory bronchioles.
    Smooth muscle
  64. What type of fibers aid breathing mechanism?
  65. What are branches through terminal bronchioles lined with?
    Pseudostratified, ciliated epithelium, and goblet cells
  66. Respiratory bronchioles through alveolar sacs have what kind of epithelium?
    Simple cuboidal
  67. Alveoli are lined with this for difussion.
    Simple squamous
  68. Functions to filter and distribute air, and the exchange of gases between the alveoli and blood
    respiratory tubes
  69. What are the lungs separated by?
  70. Enclosed by the thoracic cage and the diaphragm and separated by the mediastinum
  71. The right lung is ____ than the left.
  72. Which lung has a superior, middle and inferior lobe?
    Right lung
  73. Which lung has superior and inferior lobes?
  74. What are the lobes of the right lung?
    Superior, middle, inferior
  75. What are the lobes of the left lung?
    Superior, inferior
  76. Region where blood vessels and bronchi enter the lungs
  77. Attaches to the surface of each lung
    visceral pleura
  78. Lines the thoracic cavity
    parietal pleura
  79. The space between the visceral and parietal pleura, filled with serous fluid
    pleural cavity
  80. Lubricates, reduces friction, and holds membranes together
    serous fluid
  81. Movement of air from outside the body into the brochial tree and alveoli, followed by reversal of this air movement.
    Breathing (ventilation)
  82. Atmospheric pressure forces air into the lungs
    inspiration (inhilation)
  83. Elastic recoil (relaxation) of tissues and organs forces air out of the lungs
    experation (exhalation)
  84. During this process, the diaphragm contracts and moves down and external intercostal muscles contract and raise the ribs, increasing the size of the thoracic cavity, thereby reducing the pressure inside the lungs
    inspiration (inhilation)
  85. Surface tension between the two layers of the pleural membranes help expansion of the lungs during this event.
    Inspiration (inhilation)
  86. ____ forces air into the lungs
    atmospheric pressure
  87. Produced by the alveolar cells this prevents alveoli from collapsing
  88. Inspiration (inhilation) is a ____ process since muscles contract.
  89. Experation (exhalation) is a ____ process.
  90. Air is squeezed out of the lungs during this process
    expiration (exhalation)
  91. During this process the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, reducing the size of the thoracic cavity and forcing air out of the lungs.
    Expiration (exhalation)
  92. During this process, elastic tissues of the lung recoil and surface tension in alveoli make alveoli shrink
    expiration (exhalation)
  93. Measurement of different volumes of air in/out of the lungs, based on different degrees of effort.
  94. One inspiration followed by one expiration
    respiratory cycle
  95. The amount of air that normally moves in and out during quiet breathing (500mL)
    tidal volume (TV)
  96. Volume that can be inhaled during forced breathing in addition to TV (3,000mL)
    inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
  97. Volume that can be exhaled during forced breathing in addition to TV
    expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
  98. Volume that remains in the lungs at all times (1,200mL). The old and new air mix, keeping O2/CO2 from fluctuating greatly.
    Residual volume (RV)
  99. The maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible
    vital capacity (VC)
  100. Total volume of air that lungs can hold, which varies based on age, sex, and body size
    total lung capacity
  101. VC (vital capacity) = ?
    TV + IRV + ERV
  102. TLC (total lung capacity) = ?
    VC + RV
  103. Air movements that occur in addition to breathing, which function to clear passageways or express emotion
    nonrespiratory air movements
  104. Involves a deep breath and closing of the glottis, air is forced upward, clearing the lower respiratory passages
  105. Air is directed into the nasal passages by depressing the uvula which closes the opening between the pharynx and the oral cavity, clearing the upper passageways
  106. Deep breath is released in a series of short expirations, expressing happiness
  107. Deep breath is released in a series of short expirations, expressing sadness
  108. The diaphragm contracts spasmodically while the glottis is closed. No useful function is know for this process.
  109. A deep breath is taken, which ventilates the alveoli and aids oxygenation of blood
  110. Air is forced through the larynx causing vocal cords to vibrate, and words are formed by lips, tongue, and soft palate
  111. What area in the medulla oblongata establishes the basic rhythm of breathing?
    Rhythmicity area
  112. What area in the pons can increase or decrease inhalation?
    Pneumotaxic area
  113. How does the partial pressure of CO2 in body fluids affect breathing?
    Higher concentrations of CO2 causes breathing to increase, causing more CO2 to be exhaled so levels return to normal
  114. Regulates the depth of breathing
    inflation reflex
  115. What emotional states can cause gasping or rapid breathing?
    Fear, excitement, horror, sexual stimulation, surprise, etc
  116. Lower CO2 levels and elevated pH levels can cause vasoconstriction of cerebral arterioles and fainting. This is known as what?
  117. Oxygen combines with iron in hemoglobin to form this
  118. How many oxygens per hemoglobin?
  119. Combines to hemoglobin easier than oxygen, preventing oxygen from combining
    carbon monoxide
  120. How much carbon dioxide is dissolved in blood plasma?
  121. How much carbon dioxide bonds back to hemoglobin (bonding to the amino group cabaminohemoglobin)?
  122. How much carbon dioxide is transported as part of bicarbonate ion?
  123. Made when carbon dioxide enters red blood cells where the enzyme carbonic anhydrase speeds the reaction between it and water.
    carbonic acid
  124. When carbon dioxide enters red blood cells, what enzyme speeds the reaction between CO2 and water, making carbonic acid?
    carbonic anhydrase
  125. Irritation of the ciliated epithelium that lines the bronchiole walls.
  126. Chronic cases can scar and constrict airways
  127. Caused by air pollutants, smoking, or allergies, and the excess mucus causes coughing and can harbor bacteria
  128. Irreversible breakdown in alveolar walls in which the lungs may become inelastic
  129. This respiratory disease may be caused by a genetic defect but is most often caused by smoking