chapter19 respiratory system ICC Davis anatomy physiology
Chapter 19 Respiratory System ICC:Davis Anatomy and Physiology II
Area at the back of the throat where the mouth and nasal cavity meet
The trachea divides into these right and left branches
Opening in the windpipe
Contains the vocal cords
Tiny air sacs where the exchange of gases between air and blood takes place
Flat sheet of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity
Inflammation of the lining of the brochial tubes
Smaller branches of the bronchi
Flap of tissue which prevents food from entering windpipe during swallowing
Tube leading from larynx to bronchi
Blood vessels surrounding the air sacs
Moist membrane covering the lung and chest cavity wall on each side
Infection of the lungs caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi
Brochial spasm resulting in decreased air movement and air trapped in alveoli
The entire process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells
Movement of air in and out of the lungs
breathing and ventilation
Exchange of gases between air in the lungs and blood
Exchange of gases between the blood and body cells
Upper respiratory tract
Lower respiratory tract
Organs of the respiratory system
Organ of the respiratory system which is supported by muscle, bone and cartilage
What guards the openings of the nostrils?
Divides the hollow space of the nasal cavities
Divides the cavity into passageways and supports mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity
Filters, warms, and moistens air in the nasal cavity
Particles trapped in the nasal cavity are carried where to be swallowed?
Air-filled spaces in maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones
These open into the nasal cavity and are lined with mucous membrane
Functions to reduce the weight of the skull and also affects the way you sound
Passageway with 3 subdivisions which aids in producing sound
What are the three divisions of the pharynx?
Naso, oro, larynxo
The voice box
Enlargement at the top of the trachea
The passageway for air
Helps prevent foreign objects from entering the trachea
Houses the vocal cords
What structures are associated with the larynx?
Flaplike structure that covers the glottis during swallowing
Adam's apple, protrudes in the front of the neck
Lies inferior to the thyroid, marks the lowest portion of the larynx
Attached to the border of thyroid cartilage, it supports the epiglottis
These do not function in sound but help to close the larynx during swallowing
false vocal cords
These make vocal sounds as air passes through the vocal cords
true vocal cords
Produced due to the tension of the vocal cords
Related to the force of air as it passes through the vocal cords
Found anterior to the esophagus
Extends into the thoracic cavity and branches to the left and right bronchi
What holds the trachea open?
C-rings of hyaline cartilage
Allows air to bypass an obstruction in the larynx
Branched air passages leading from the trachea to the air sacs
On the right and left, leads from the trachea to the lungs
Connects to a lung lobe, 2 from the left primary bronchi and 3 from the right primary bronchi
Supplies a bronchiopulmonary segment, 10 on the right and 8 on the left
Basic lung unit, each enters a lobule
Found in the bronchial tree, there are 50 or more per lobule
The first branch of the bronchial tree to engage in gas exchange. There are 2 or more from each terminal bronchiole.
2 to 10 of these branch from each respiratory bronchiole
Thin-walled out-pouchings of the alveolar ducts (looks like a cluster of grapes)
Microscopic air-sacs (one grape)
As tubes of the bronchial tree branch, cartilage decreases and none is present in ____
____ surrounds the tubes of the bronchial tree down to the respiratory bronchioles.
What type of fibers aid breathing mechanism?
What are branches through terminal bronchioles lined with?
Pseudostratified, ciliated epithelium, and goblet cells
Respiratory bronchioles through alveolar sacs have what kind of epithelium?
Alveoli are lined with this for difussion.
Functions to filter and distribute air, and the exchange of gases between the alveoli and blood
What are the lungs separated by?
Enclosed by the thoracic cage and the diaphragm and separated by the mediastinum
The right lung is ____ than the left.
Which lung has a superior, middle and inferior lobe?
Which lung has superior and inferior lobes?
What are the lobes of the right lung?
Superior, middle, inferior
What are the lobes of the left lung?
Region where blood vessels and bronchi enter the lungs
Attaches to the surface of each lung
Lines the thoracic cavity
The space between the visceral and parietal pleura, filled with serous fluid
Lubricates, reduces friction, and holds membranes together
Movement of air from outside the body into the brochial tree and alveoli, followed by reversal of this air movement.
Atmospheric pressure forces air into the lungs
Elastic recoil (relaxation) of tissues and organs forces air out of the lungs
During this process, the diaphragm contracts and moves down and external intercostal muscles contract and raise the ribs, increasing the size of the thoracic cavity, thereby reducing the pressure inside the lungs
Surface tension between the two layers of the pleural membranes help expansion of the lungs during this event.
____ forces air into the lungs
Produced by the alveolar cells this prevents alveoli from collapsing
Inspiration (inhilation) is a ____ process since muscles contract.
Experation (exhalation) is a ____ process.
Air is squeezed out of the lungs during this process
During this process the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, reducing the size of the thoracic cavity and forcing air out of the lungs.
During this process, elastic tissues of the lung recoil and surface tension in alveoli make alveoli shrink
Measurement of different volumes of air in/out of the lungs, based on different degrees of effort.
One inspiration followed by one expiration
The amount of air that normally moves in and out during quiet breathing (500mL)
tidal volume (TV)
Volume that can be inhaled during forced breathing in addition to TV (3,000mL)
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Volume that can be exhaled during forced breathing in addition to TV
expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
Volume that remains in the lungs at all times (1,200mL). The old and new air mix, keeping O2/CO2 from fluctuating greatly.
Residual volume (RV)
The maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible
vital capacity (VC)
Total volume of air that lungs can hold, which varies based on age, sex, and body size
total lung capacity
VC (vital capacity) = ?
TV + IRV + ERV
TLC (total lung capacity) = ?
VC + RV
Air movements that occur in addition to breathing, which function to clear passageways or express emotion
nonrespiratory air movements
Involves a deep breath and closing of the glottis, air is forced upward, clearing the lower respiratory passages
Air is directed into the nasal passages by depressing the uvula which closes the opening between the pharynx and the oral cavity, clearing the upper passageways
Deep breath is released in a series of short expirations, expressing happiness
Deep breath is released in a series of short expirations, expressing sadness
The diaphragm contracts spasmodically while the glottis is closed. No useful function is know for this process.
A deep breath is taken, which ventilates the alveoli and aids oxygenation of blood
Air is forced through the larynx causing vocal cords to vibrate, and words are formed by lips, tongue, and soft palate
What area in the medulla oblongata establishes the basic rhythm of breathing?
What area in the pons can increase or decrease inhalation?
How does the partial pressure of CO2 in body fluids affect breathing?
Higher concentrations of CO2 causes breathing to increase, causing more CO2 to be exhaled so levels return to normal
Regulates the depth of breathing
What emotional states can cause gasping or rapid breathing?
Fear, excitement, horror, sexual stimulation, surprise, etc
Lower CO2 levels and elevated pH levels can cause vasoconstriction of cerebral arterioles and fainting. This is known as what?
Oxygen combines with iron in hemoglobin to form this
How many oxygens per hemoglobin?
Combines to hemoglobin easier than oxygen, preventing oxygen from combining
How much carbon dioxide is dissolved in blood plasma?
How much carbon dioxide bonds back to hemoglobin (bonding to the amino group cabaminohemoglobin)?
How much carbon dioxide is transported as part of bicarbonate ion?
Made when carbon dioxide enters red blood cells where the enzyme carbonic anhydrase speeds the reaction between it and water.
When carbon dioxide enters red blood cells, what enzyme speeds the reaction between CO2 and water, making carbonic acid?
Irritation of the ciliated epithelium that lines the bronchiole walls.
Chronic cases can scar and constrict airways
Caused by air pollutants, smoking, or allergies, and the excess mucus causes coughing and can harbor bacteria
Irreversible breakdown in alveolar walls in which the lungs may become inelastic
This respiratory disease may be caused by a genetic defect but is most often caused by smoking