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  1. elbow flexion desired for canes and crutches
    20-30 degrees
  2. measuring crutches, in standing and supine
    • standing: subtract 16 inches from pt's ht, or measure from 2 inches below axilla to a point 6 inches ant and 2 inches lat to foot
    • supine: axilla to a point 6-8 inches lat to heel
  3. blucher opening vs bal/balmoral opening
    • blucher: the bamps open wide
    • bal: the bamps are stitched down
    • sooo, only blucher are suitable for orthotics
  4. UCBL insert
    • university of CA biomechanics laboratory insert 
    • semirigid plastic molded insert
    • corrects for flexible pes planus 
    • (it gives longitudinal arch support, as do the scaphoid pad and thomas heel, which give support, prevent depression of subtalar jt, correct flexible pes planus or valgus)
  5. rearfoot posting
    • alters pos of subtalar jt/rearfoot from heel strike to foot flat
    • varus post / medial wedge: limits calc eversion and tibial IR
    • valgus post / lateral wedge: limits calc and subtalar inversion and sup
  6. forefoot posting
    • supports the forefoto
    • medial wedge - for valgus
    • lateral wedge - for varus
    • (posts are contraind for the insensitive foot)
  7. heel lifts / heel platforms
    how high?
    • up to 3/8 inch
    • accomodates for LLD and decreased DF
  8. bichannel adjustable ankle lock
    • BiCAAL
    • AFO where youcan insert bins to reduce motions or springs to assist motoin
  9. solid AFO - allows what ankle motion?
  10. modified afo
    like a regular one but with more med/lat stability, reducing forefoot inversion and eversion
  11. solid ankle AFO
    • has widest posterior shell
    • prevents DF, PF, inv, ev
  12. spiral AFO
    winds around teh calf providing limited control in all planes
  13. tone reducing orthosis
    • molded plastic AFO puts constant pressure on spastic or hypertonic muscles
    • snug fit is essential
  14. Patten bottom thigh band
    • lifts teh whole foot providing 100% unweighting
    • used with Legg-Calve-Perthes
    • other leg will need a lift
  15. craig-scott kafo
    • commonly used for paraplegia
    • cages the whole leg, w BiCAAL ankles set in slight DF, pretibial band, pawl knee licks w bail release, single thigh band
  16. Oregon orthotic system
    • KAFO
    • allows triplanar control (sagital, frontal, transverse)
  17. FES orthosis used with what populations
    • paraplegia
    • dropfoot
    • scoliosis
  18. swedish knee cage limits what
    • hyperextension
    • has bars above and below knee to encourage flex
  19. Dennis Browne splint
    • bar connecting 2 shoes
    • for club foot / pes equinovarus in young children
  20. frejka pillow -- does what?
    • keeps hips in abd
    • it's like a saddle tied to the groin
  21. toronto hip abd orthosis - for what pop
  22. chairback family of orthoses
    • chairback: no lat uprights
    • w uprights: knight
    • goes up to inf angle of scap: Taylor
    • Taylor w lat uprights: knight-Taylor
  23. Jewett orthosis
    what kind
    limits what
    for what
    • TLSO
    • limits flexion
    • encourages hyperext / lordosis
    • used for compression fracture of spine
  24. minerva orthosis
    • cervical
    • righid
    • provides max control of cervical motion but w/o screws
  25. milwaukee orthosis
    • CTLSO
    • controls scoliosis
  26. Boston orthosis
    • TLSO
    • but more cosmetic than Milwaukee, can be worn under clothesgood for mid thoracic or lower scoliosis curves under 40 degrees
  27. resting / cock-up splint for hand
    • puts hand in functional pos -- wrist is neutral or in 12-20 ext, fingers supported, slightly flexed
    • for pts w RA, carpal fractures, Colles', CTS, stroke, etc
  28. inadequate knee lock or a hip or knee flexion contraction can cuase what gait dev
    ant trunk bending
  29. inadequate hip lock, weak glut max, knee ankylosis can allcause what gait dev
    post trunk bending
  30. syme's amputatino
    ankle disarticulation -- goes thru ankle jt, removing tib and fib malleoli
  31. hemicorporectomy
    amputation of both LE and plevis below L4-5
  32. pressure tolerant areas on the transtivial amputation residual limb
    • patellar tendon
    • medial tibial plateau
    • tib and fib shaftes
    • distal end
  33. pressure tolerant areas of the thypical transfemoral residual limb
    • IT
    • glutes
    • lat sides of limb
    • distal end (though distolateral oddly enough count as pressure sensitive)
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