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What is the MOA of A1 membrane receptors?
- Increase [IP3]
- Increase intracellular [Ca2+]
Where are the A1 membrane receptors located?
- Radial iris dilator
- Vascular SM
- Gi tract (sphincter)
What is the MOA of A2 membrane receptors?
- Inhibits adenylyl cyclase
- Decreased cAMP
Which membrane receptor decreased cAMP?
Where are the A2 membrane receptors found?
- Presynaptic adrenergic neurons
- Gi tract (wall)
- CB vasculature
What is the MOA of B1 membrane receptors?
What membrane receptor increases cAMP?
Where are the B2 membrane receptors found?
- GI tract
- Bladder wall
- Vascular SM
Which membrane receptors are the only ones to open Na/K channels?
Where are the nicotinic membrane receptors found?
- Skeletal muscle
- Motor end plate
- Postganglionic neurons
- Adrenal medulla
What is the MOA of muscarinic membrane receptors?
- Increases [IP3]
- Increases intracellular [Ca2+]
Where are the muscarinic membrane receptors found?
- Vascular SM
- Sweat glands
- PNS effector organs
Which membrane receptors increase Ca2+?
What 2 zones are in the respiratory system?
- Conducting zone
- respiratory zone
what anatomy is found in the conducting zone of the respiratory system?
- Upper airways
What anatomy is found in the respiratory zone of the respiratory system?
- Respiratory bronchioles
- Alveolar ducts
- Alveolar sacs
What happens during inspiration?
- Diaphragm contracts
- Parasternal and external intercostal muscles contract
- Thoracic volume increases
- Rib cage lifts
- air is sucked in do to increased volume in cavity and decreased pressure in lung
what happens during expiration?
- Passive process
- Muscle recoil
- Diaphragm relaxes
What hypothalamic hormones are releasing?
- Thyroid releasing hormone(TRH)
- Corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH)
- Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
- Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)
What hypothalamic hormones are inhibitory?
- Prolactin inhibiting factor
What does hormone TRH do?
Stimulates synthesis and release of TSH and prolactin
What does hormone CRH do?
Stimulates the synthesis and release of ACTH
What does hormone GnRH do?
Stimulates synthesis and release of FSH and LH
What does hormone GHRH do?
Stimulates synthesis and release of GH
What does hormone somatostatin do?
Inhibits release of GH
what are the only hormones stored in the posterior pituitary?
What does oxytocin do?
- Milk ejection (let down)
- Inhibited by fear, stress, and opoids
- Uterine contractions in childbirth
What does ACTH do?
- Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids to increase blood glucose
- Opposite of insulin
What does insulin do?
- Removes excess free floating extracellular glucose, by putting it into cells
- Stores glucose into glycogen
- Inhibits glucagon which uses fats ans energy source
What lab results would you expect to find in hyperthyroidism?
How does GH work?
- Stimulates movement of amino acids into cells for protein production
- Prevents glucose from entering cells, causing higher free-floating extracellular [glucose]
What regulates hormone GH?
- GHRH in hypothalamus
What does excess GH do?
- Gigantism in kids
- Acromegaly in Adults
- Secondary diseases such as cushings disease (hypercorticosteroidism)
What does a deficiency in GH do?
- Short stature
- Delayed ossification of bones
- Mild obesity
- Secondary diseases such as addison's disease (need to ADD steroids)
What does FSH hormone do?
Stimulates development of gamete cells in ovaries and testies
What is FSH regulated by?
What does LH do?
- Secretes sex hormones
- Ovulation and corpus luteum
What do estrogens do?
- Female sex hormone
- Endometrium growth
What do progestins do?
- Maintains vascular supply in uterus
- Withdrawal leads to menstruation
What inhibits prolactin?
PIF and dopamine
Where does PTH come from?
What does PTH do?
Inversely regulates calcium
What does calcitonin do?
- Inhibits osteoclast activity (tones it down)
- Creates more calcium deposit in bones
What cells in the pancreas are responsible for glucagon production?
What cells in the pancreas are responsible for insulin production?
How are glucagon and insulin related?
What are delta cells in the pancreas?
- Produce somatostatin
- Inhibits GH, TSH, and GI hormones
Where are beta cells located in the pancreas?
Islets of Langerhans
Why do DM pts have fruity breath?
What is produced in the adrenal cortex?
What glucocorticoids are there?
What mineralocorticoids are there?
What does cortisol do?
- Makes energy (sugar) ready available
- Mobilizes amino acids from muscles for gluconeogenesis
- Increases blood glucose
- Promotes glycogenesis
- Promotes peripheral insulin resistance
- Increases catabolism of proteins
- Increases protein synthesis in liver
- Enhances lipolysis in adipose tissue
What does aldosterone do?
- Renal Na+ reabsorption into bloodstream
- Renal K+ excretion into urine
What is produced in the adrenal medulla?
What do catecholamines (norep and epi) do?
- Increase liver and muscle glycogenolysis
- Inhibition of insulin release and glucose uptake
- Stimulation of glucagon release and gluconeogenesis
- Increased cardiac contractility and heart rate
- Increased blood pressure via vasoconstriction
- Dilated pupils and sweating