systemic physio nbeo3 endocrine .txt

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cjensen20
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279211
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systemic physio nbeo3 endocrine .txt
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2015-02-24 15:28:10
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systemic physio3 endocrine nbeo optometry
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systemic physio3 endocrine nbeo optometry
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  1. What is the MOA of A1 membrane receptors?
    • Increase [IP3]
    • Increase intracellular [Ca2+]
  2. Where are the A1 membrane receptors located?
    • Radial iris dilator
    • Vascular SM
    • Gi tract (sphincter)
  3. What is the MOA of A2 membrane receptors?
    • Inhibits adenylyl cyclase
    • Decreased cAMP
  4. Which membrane receptor decreased cAMP?
    A2
  5. Where are the A2 membrane receptors found?
    • Presynaptic adrenergic neurons
    • Gi tract (wall)
    • CB vasculature
  6. What is the MOA of B1 membrane receptors?
    Increases cAMP
  7. What membrane receptor increases cAMP?
    • B1
    • B2
  8. Where are the B2 membrane receptors found?
    • Bronchioles
    • GI tract
    • Bladder wall
    • Vascular SM
    • TM
    • CB
  9. Which membrane receptors are the only ones to open Na/K channels?
    Nicotinic
  10. Where are the nicotinic membrane receptors found?
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Motor end plate
    • Postganglionic neurons
    • Adrenal medulla
  11. What is the MOA of muscarinic membrane receptors?
    • Increases [IP3]
    • Increases intracellular [Ca2+]
  12. Where are the muscarinic membrane receptors found?
    • Vascular SM
    • Sweat glands
    • PNS effector organs
  13. Which membrane receptors increase Ca2+?
    • A1
    • Muscarinic
  14. What 2 zones are in the respiratory system?
    • Conducting zone
    • respiratory zone
  15. what anatomy is found in the conducting zone of the respiratory system?
    • Upper airways
    • Trachea
    • Bronci
    • Bronchioles
  16. What anatomy is found in the respiratory zone of the respiratory system?
    • Respiratory bronchioles
    • Alveolar ducts
    • Alveolar sacs
    • Alveoli
  17. What happens during inspiration?
    • Diaphragm contracts
    • Parasternal and external intercostal muscles contract
    • Thoracic volume increases
    • Rib cage lifts
    • air is sucked in do to increased volume in cavity and decreased pressure in lung
  18. what happens during expiration?
    • Passive process
    • Muscle recoil
    • Diaphragm relaxes
  19. What hypothalamic hormones are releasing?
    • Thyroid releasing hormone(TRH)
    • Corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH)
    • Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
    • Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)
  20. What hypothalamic hormones are inhibitory?
    • Somatostatin
    • Prolactin inhibiting factor
  21. What does hormone TRH do?
    Stimulates synthesis and release of TSH and prolactin
  22. What does hormone CRH do?
    Stimulates the synthesis and release of ACTH
  23. What does hormone GnRH do?
    Stimulates synthesis and release of FSH and LH
  24. What does hormone GHRH do?
    Stimulates synthesis and release of GH
  25. What does hormone somatostatin do?
    Inhibits release of GH
  26. what are the only hormones stored in the posterior pituitary?
    • Oxytocin
    • Vasopressin
  27. What does oxytocin do?
    • Milk ejection (let down)
    • Inhibited by fear, stress, and opoids
    • Uterine contractions in childbirth
  28. What does ACTH do?
    • Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids to increase blood glucose
    • Opposite of insulin
  29. What does insulin do?
    • Removes excess free floating extracellular glucose, by putting it into cells
    • Stores glucose into glycogen
    • Inhibits glucagon which uses fats ans energy source
  30. What lab results would you expect to find in hyperthyroidism?
    • Low TSH
    • High T4
  31. How does GH work?
    • Stimulates movement of amino acids into cells for protein production
    • Prevents glucose from entering cells, causing higher free-floating extracellular [glucose]
  32. What regulates hormone GH?
    • GHRH in hypothalamus
    • Somatostatin
  33. What does excess GH do?
    • Gigantism in kids
    • Acromegaly in Adults
    • Secondary diseases such as cushings disease (hypercorticosteroidism)
  34. What does a deficiency in GH do?
    • Short stature
    • Delayed ossification of bones
    • Mild obesity
    • Secondary diseases such as addison's disease (need to ADD steroids)
  35. What does FSH hormone do?
    Stimulates development of gamete cells in ovaries and testies
  36. What is FSH regulated by?
    • GnRH
    • Sex steroids
  37. What does LH do?
    • Secretes sex hormones
    • Ovulation and corpus luteum
  38. What do estrogens do?
    • Female sex hormone
    • Endometrium growth
  39. What do progestins do?
    • Maintains vascular supply in uterus
    • Withdrawal leads to menstruation
  40. What inhibits prolactin?
    PIF and dopamine
  41. Where does PTH come from?
    Parathyroid
  42. What does PTH do?
    Inversely regulates calcium
  43. What does calcitonin do?
    • Inhibits osteoclast activity (tones it down)
    • Creates more calcium deposit in bones
  44. What cells in the pancreas are responsible for glucagon production?
    Alpha cells
  45. What cells in the pancreas are responsible for insulin production?
    Beta cells
  46. How are glucagon and insulin related?
    Opposites
  47. What are delta cells in the pancreas?
    • Produce somatostatin
    • Inhibits GH, TSH, and GI hormones
  48. Where are beta cells located in the pancreas?
    Islets of Langerhans
  49. Why do DM pts have fruity breath?
    • Acidemia - low pH
    • Acetone
  50. What is produced in the adrenal cortex?
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Mineralocorticoids
  51. What glucocorticoids are there?
    • Cortisol
    • Corticosterone
  52. What mineralocorticoids are there?
    • Aldosterone
    • Deoxycorticosterone
  53. What does cortisol do?
    • Makes energy (sugar) ready available
    • Mobilizes amino acids from muscles for gluconeogenesis
    • Increases blood glucose
    • Promotes glycogenesis
    • Promotes peripheral insulin resistance
    • Increases catabolism of proteins
    • Increases protein synthesis in liver
    • Enhances lipolysis in adipose tissue
  54. What does aldosterone do?
    • Renal Na+ reabsorption into bloodstream
    • Renal K+ excretion into urine
  55. What is produced in the adrenal medulla?
    • Norep
    • Epinephrine
  56. What do catecholamines (norep and epi) do?
    • Increase liver and muscle glycogenolysis
    • Inhibition of insulin release and glucose uptake
    • Stimulation of glucagon release and gluconeogenesis
    • Lipolysis
    • Increased cardiac contractility and heart rate
    • Increased blood pressure via vasoconstriction
    • Dilated pupils and sweating

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