systemic pathology nbeo.txt

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systemic pathology nbeo.txt
2015-02-24 15:22:30
systemic pathology nbeo optometry

systemic pathology nbeo
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  1. What is the immediate response 1-2 minutes after injury?
    Acute inflammation
  2. What do leukocytes do?
    Help clear the injury site of invading bacteria
  3. What inflammatory cells are mononuclear?
    • Macrophages
    • Lymphocytes
    • Plasma cells
  4. What events affect wound healing?
    • Local infection
    • Decreased blood supply such as in diabetes
    • Immunocompromised states
    • Systemic infection
    • Malnutrition
    • Increased stress
  5. What is a type I hypersensitivity reaction
  6. What immuno cells are involved with Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions?
    • b-lymphocytes
    • IgE
  7. What happens on a cellular level during a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction?
    Histamine is released from mast cells and basophils
  8. What are examples of type 1 hypersensitivity reactions?
    Allergy/ atopy
  9. What is the name for type 2 hypersensitivity reactions?
  10. What immuno cells are involved with type 2 hypersensitivity reactions?
    • IgM
    • IgG
  11. What happens on a cellular level during a type 2 hypersensitivity reaction?
    Antigens are bound by IgM/G
  12. What are some examples of type 2 hypersensitivity reaction?
    • Rh dz
    • Goodpastures syndrome
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Ocular cicatrical pemphigoid
  13. What is the name for type 3 hypersensitivity reactions?
  14. What immuno cells are involved in type 3 hypersensitivity reactions?
    Ag/Ab complex
  15. What are some examples of type 3 hypersensitivity reaction?
    • SLE
    • RA
    • SJS
    • Scleritis
  16. What is the name for type 4 hypersensitivity reactions?
  17. What immuno cells are involved in type 4 hypersensitivity reactions?
    Sensitized T-lymphocytes
  18. What are some examples of type 4 hypersensitivity reactions?
    • TB skin test
    • Contact dermatitis
    • Corneal transplant rejection
    • Phlyctenulosis
  19. Summarize Lupus:
    • Affects skin, kidneys, joints and heart
    • Mostly in females 20s-30s
  20. What are the S&S in lupus?
    • Butterfly rash
    • Photosensitivity
    • Arthritis
    • Renal disorders
    • Neurological disorders
    • Seizures
    • Immunological disorders
    • Hemolytic anemia
    • Disc edema
    • Papilledema
  21. What lab test should be run to determine lupus?
  22. Summarize RA:
    • Affects joints mostly, destruction of articular cartilage
    • Symptoms are worse in the morning
    • Women >men 40s-50s
    • Life expectancy is reduced by 4-10 years
    • Summarize Juvenile RA:
    • Most common cause of uveitis in children
    • Women>men
    • Bilateral, nongranulomatous anterior uveitis
  23. What is the triad of sjogren's syndrome?
    • Dry mouth
    • Dry eyes
    • Arthritis
  24. What ocular manifestation can be seen with gout?
    Band keratopathy
  25. What demographic is more likely to have celiac sprue?
    Northern European decent
  26. What test should be performed for sarcoidosis?
    • Chest x-ray
    • Bells palsy testing
    • Increased levels of ACE in blood serum
  27. What are ocular signs of sarcoidosis?
    • Anterior uveitis - Mutton-fat KP
    • Posterior uveitis - candle-wax drippings
  28. What does deficiency of IgA cause?
    • Most common immunodeficiency
    • Involved in mucosal defenses
    • Recurrent respiratory tract infections
    • Keratinization of the cornea
    • Weight loss and diarrhea
  29. What do you need to know about IgA?
    Found in tears, saliva, breast milk
  30. What do you need to know about IgD?
    Activates B cells, mast cells, basophils
  31. What do you need to know about IgE?
    • Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions
    • Surface of mast cells
    • Parasitic worms
  32. What do you need to know about IgG?
    • Secondary response
    • Crosses placental barrier
  33. What do you need to know about IgM
    • Primary response
    • Surface of immature B cells
    • ABO blood type
    • Pentameters
  34. At what CD4 count does HIV become AIDS?
  35. What CD4 count is associated with cytomegalovirus retinitis?
  36. What are common opportunistic fungal infections occur with HIV/AIDS?
  37. What are common opportunistic bacterial infections occur with HIV/AIDS?
    • Pneumonia
    • Meningitis
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  38. What are common opportunistic viral infections occur with HIV/AIDS?
    • CMV
    • HSV
    • Kaposi sarcoma