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What ion is found in higher concentrations inside the cell?
What ion is found in higher concentration outside the cell?
What is the equilibrium cellular charge?
What is the ratio of Na+:K+ pumped out of the cell?
What is depolarization?
Inside of the cell is more positive
What is hyperpolarization?
Inside of the cell is less positive
What membrane receptors increase intracellular Ca2+?
What membrane receptors increase cAMP?
What membrane receptors decrease cAMP?
What is the only receptor class to open NA/K channels?
How many Liters of fluid in the body is interstitial fluid?
How many Liters of fluid in the body is blood plasma?
Which lung are solid particles more likely to accumulate?
Right (it is shorter and wider)
What is the order of the flow of blood through the heart?
- A - V
- Right - left
- Tri - bi
- Pulm valve - mitral valve - aortic valve
- SAAV HIS PURKINJE (save his Purkinje)
What is the order of sounds in the heart?
- TRY-MY (tricuspid - mitral)
- Apple Pie (aortic, pulmonary)
What type of occlusions are due to thrombi?
What type of occlusions are due to emboli?
Where in the nephron does water leave?
Descending loop of henle
Where in the nephron does NaCl leave?
Ascending loop of henle
What does the proximal convoluted tubule do?
- Workhorse of the nephron
- Amino acids, bicarbonate, Na, and H20 are absorbed
Where does acetazolamide work on the nephron?
Proximal convoluted tuble
What does acetazolamide do?
Inhibits reabsorption of NA and bicarb, causing metabolic acidosis
Where does furosemide act in the nephron?
Ascending loop of henle
What does furosemide do?
What part of the nephron is imperviable to water?
Distal convoluted tubule
Where in the nephron do thiazide diuretics work?
Early distal convoluted tubule
Where in the nephron does aldosterone and K+ sparing diuretics work?
Late distal convoluted tubule
What is the P wave in an ECG?
Contraction of atria
What is the QRS complex in ECG?
Depolarization if ventricles
What is the T wave in ECG?
Recovery of ventricles
How do alpha 2 receptors work on the heart?
- Act to slow it down
- Like parasympathetic would in the heart
- And sympathetic would everywhere else
What causes depolarization in the heart?
Influx of CA+2
What is oncotic pressure dependent on?
What is hydrostatic pressure?
Fluid pressure generated from the heart
Where are the blood pressure's baroreceptors located?
- Aortic arch
- Carotid sinus
- Sympathetic nervous system
Where is ADH released from?
What is angiotensin II?
Most potent vasoconstrictor in the body
Where is aldosterone released from?
What three hormones can elevate blood pressure?
- Angiotensin II
How does the sympathetic system work on the kidney?
- Decreases GFR and urine
- Constricts afferent artery
- Increases cardiac output
- Increases total peripheral resistance via vasoconstriction
When is angiotensin II released?
- When Cl- is low
- When the body is not absorbing enough water
When is ADH released?
When the body senses it is dehydrated or the salt intake is too high
When is aldosterone released?
- In response to decreased blood volume
- Increase in [K+]
- Increased salt and water retention
- Increase in blood volume
What causes respiratory acidosis?
- Increased dissolve CO2 leading to decreased pH
What causes metabolic acidosis?
Loss of bicarbonate due to diarrhea
How does the body compensate for metabolic acidosis?
What causes respiratory alkalosis?
- Decreased dissolved CO2 leading to increased pH
How does the body compensate for respiratory alkalosis?
More urine excretion
What causes metabolic alkalosis?
Increase in bicarbonate due to vomiting
How does the body compensate for metabolic alkalosis?
- Less ventilation
- More bicarbonate in urine
What is the chemical used in sympathetic nervous system
What is the chemical used in parasympathetic nervous system?