systemic physio nbeo1.txt

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  1. What ion is found in higher concentrations inside the cell?
  2. What ion is found in higher concentration outside the cell?
  3. What is the equilibrium cellular charge?
  4. What is the ratio of Na+:K+ pumped out of the cell?
  5. What is depolarization?
    Inside of the cell is more positive
  6. What is hyperpolarization?
    Inside of the cell is less positive
  7. What membrane receptors increase intracellular Ca2+?
    • Alpha 1
    • Muscarinic
  8. What membrane receptors increase cAMP?
    • Beta 1
    • Beta 2
  9. What membrane receptors decrease cAMP?
    Alpha 2
  10. What is the only receptor class to open NA/K channels?
  11. How many Liters of fluid in the body is interstitial fluid?
    25 L
  12. How many Liters of fluid in the body is blood plasma?
  13. Which lung are solid particles more likely to accumulate?
    Right (it is shorter and wider)
  14. What is the order of the flow of blood through the heart?
    • A - V
    • Right - left
    • Tri - bi
    • Pulm valve - mitral valve - aortic valve
    • SAAV HIS PURKINJE (save his Purkinje)
  15. What is the order of sounds in the heart?
    • TRY-MY (tricuspid - mitral)
    • Apple Pie (aortic, pulmonary)
  16. What type of occlusions are due to thrombi?
    Vein occlusions
  17. What type of occlusions are due to emboli?
    Artery occlusions
  18. Where in the nephron does water leave?
    Descending loop of henle
  19. Where in the nephron does NaCl leave?
    Ascending loop of henle
  20. What does the proximal convoluted tubule do?
    • Workhorse of the nephron
    • Amino acids, bicarbonate, Na, and H20 are absorbed
  21. Where does acetazolamide work on the nephron?
    Proximal convoluted tuble
  22. What does acetazolamide do?
    Inhibits reabsorption of NA and bicarb, causing metabolic acidosis
  23. Where does furosemide act in the nephron?
    Ascending loop of henle
  24. What does furosemide do?
    Causes hypokalemia
  25. What part of the nephron is imperviable to water?
    Distal convoluted tubule
  26. Where in the nephron do thiazide diuretics work?
    Early distal convoluted tubule
  27. Where in the nephron does aldosterone and K+ sparing diuretics work?
    Late distal convoluted tubule
  28. What is the P wave in an ECG?
    Contraction of atria
  29. What is the QRS complex in ECG?
    Depolarization if ventricles
  30. What is the T wave in ECG?
    Recovery of ventricles
  31. How do alpha 2 receptors work on the heart?
    • Act to slow it down
    • Like parasympathetic would in the heart
    • And sympathetic would everywhere else
  32. What causes depolarization in the heart?
    Influx of CA+2
  33. What is oncotic pressure dependent on?
    Protein content
  34. What is hydrostatic pressure?
    Fluid pressure generated from the heart
  35. Where are the blood pressure's baroreceptors located?
    • Aortic arch
    • Carotid sinus
    • Sympathetic nervous system
    • CN10
    • CN8
  36. Where is ADH released from?
    Posterior pituitary
  37. What is angiotensin II?
    Most potent vasoconstrictor in the body
  38. Where is aldosterone released from?
    Adrenal cortex
  39. What three hormones can elevate blood pressure?
    • ADH
    • Angiotensin II
    • Aldosterone
  40. How does the sympathetic system work on the kidney?
    • Decreases GFR and urine
    • Constricts afferent artery
    • Increases cardiac output
    • Increases total peripheral resistance via vasoconstriction
  41. When is angiotensin II released?
    • When Cl- is low
    • When the body is not absorbing enough water
  42. When is ADH released?
    When the body senses it is dehydrated or the salt intake is too high
  43. When is aldosterone released?
    • In response to decreased blood volume
    • Increase in [K+]
    • Increased salt and water retention
    • Increase in blood volume
  44. What causes respiratory acidosis?
    • Hypoventilation
    • Increased dissolve CO2 leading to decreased pH
    • DM1
  45. What causes metabolic acidosis?
    Loss of bicarbonate due to diarrhea
  46. How does the body compensate for metabolic acidosis?
    More ventilation
  47. What causes respiratory alkalosis?
    • Hyperventilation
    • Decreased dissolved CO2 leading to increased pH
  48. How does the body compensate for respiratory alkalosis?
    More urine excretion
  49. What causes metabolic alkalosis?
    Increase in bicarbonate due to vomiting
  50. How does the body compensate for metabolic alkalosis?
    • Less ventilation
    • More bicarbonate in urine
  51. What is the chemical used in sympathetic nervous system
  52. What is the chemical used in parasympathetic nervous system?
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systemic physio nbeo1.txt
2015-02-24 20:25:09
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systemic physio nbeo1
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