ocular anatomy and physio nbeo1.txt

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ocular anatomy and physio nbeo1.txt
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ocular anatomy and physio nbeo
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  1. What is phthiriasis palpebrarum?
    Public lice
  2. What happens in the cornea as it ages?
    • Intercellular junction construction
    • Decreased wound healing
    • Spatial degradation
    • Corneal opacities
    • Corneal sensitivity
    • Corneal curvature in vertical meridian (ATR)
    • Corneal thickness
    • Increase light scatter
    • Thickening of descemet's membrane
    • Thinning of endothelium
  3. What is Hudson-stahli line?
    Horizontal pigment line
  4. What are Krukenberg spindles?
    Vertical pigment line
  5. What is the limbal girdle of vogt?
    Yellowish white opacity at 3 and 9oclock
  6. What demographic of patient gets scleromalacia perforans?
    RA pts
  7. Where does lymph drain from lateral portion of eye?
    • Parotid lymph gland
    • Preauricular
  8. Where does lymph drain from medial portion of eye?
    Submandibular lymph node
  9. Where is the pupil thickest?
    In the collarette
  10. Where is the thinnest part of the pupil?
    Ciliary zone, where iris joins to ciliary body
  11. The iris stroma is continuous with what?
    Stroma of ciliary body
  12. Where is the major circle of the iris located?
    In the CB
  13. Where is the minor circle of the iris located?
    In the iris stroma at the level of the collarette
  14. What autonomic nervous system innervated the sphincter muscle?
    Parasympathetic
  15. What part of the iris is the dilator muscle found?
    Anterior epithelium
  16. What receptor cells are found on the dilator muscle?
    A1 - sympathetic
  17. What causes the iris color?
    Due to the amount of pigmentation of melanocytes in the anterior border layer of the iris
  18. What is Argyll Robertson pupil?
    • Poor direct and consensual response
    • Constricts with near response
  19. What causes Argyll Robertson pupil?
    • Diabetic neuropathy
    • Alcoholic neuropathy
    • neurosyphilis
  20. what is adies tonic pupil?
    • Damage to ciliary body or short ciliary nerves
    • Poor pupillary light response
    • Loss of accommodation
  21. What part of the brain controls near pupil reflex?
    Frontal eye fields
  22. What part of the ciliary body creates zonular fibers?
    Pars plana
  23. How does the parasympathetic system work on the ciliary muscle?
    Stimulates contraction which causes accomodation
  24. How does the sympathetic system work on the ciliary muscle?
    Inhibitory to contraction
  25. What reeptors are located on the ciliary muscle?
    • A2 - constriction - reduces aqueous production
    • B2 - inhibitory - increases aqueous production
  26. What happens during accommodation?
    • Decreases diameter of lens
    • Release tension in zonules
    • Lens becomes more spherical
    • The lens thickens
    • Anterior surface curve steepens
    • Pupil constricts (iris sphincter)
    • Decreases IOP
  27. What accounts for 80-90% of aqueous production?
    Active secretion
  28. What is posner-schlossman syndrome?
    Repeated bouts of unilateral mild ant uveitis and very high IOP
  29. What is haller's layer?
    Large lumina in choroid that stems from short posterior ciliary arteries
  30. What is sattler's layer?
    Small lumina in choroid that stems from short posterior ciliary arteries
  31. What layer of the retina are angiod streaks found?
    Breaks in bruch's membrane
  32. Where are drusen located in the retina?
    Between bruch's membrane and RPE
  33. What is the blood supply to choriocapillaris?
    SPCA
  34. Where is the retina derived from?
    Neuronal ectoderm
  35. What are the 10 layers of the retina from most posterior to most anterior?
    • RPE
    • Photoreceptor
    • External limiting membrane
    • Outer nuclear layer
    • Outer plexiform layer
    • Inner nuclear layer
    • Inner plexiform layer
    • Ganglion cell layer
    • Nerve fiber layer
    • Internal limiting membrane
  36. Where are hard exudates found?
    Outer plexiform layer
  37. Where are retinoschisis found?
    Outer plexiform layer
  38. What effect does diabetes have on the crystallin lens?
    Excess glucose = excess sorbitol = hyper osmolaric conditions in lens = water swells in fibers = transparency lost
  39. What causes cortical cataracts?
    UVRadiation
  40. What causes nuclear cataracts?
    • Loss of glutathione
    • Causing oxidation
  41. What causes PSC?
    • Radiation therapy
    • Steroid abuse
  42. What causes sunflower cataracts?
    Intraocular trauma involving copper
  43. What causes Christmas tree cataracts?
    Myotonic dystrophy
  44. What causes oil droplet cataracts?
    Galactosemia
  45. What causes snowflake cataracts?
    Uncontrolled DM
  46. What receptors are found on muller's muscle?
    A2 - sympathetic
  47. what are glands of zeiss?
    • Oil glands for lash follicles
    • Site of external hordeolum
  48. What are glands of moll?
    • Modified sweat glands (like armpit glands)
    • Specialized apocrine glands
    • Associated with immune defense of lash and shaft
  49. how is the lacrimal gland autonomicly innervated?
    • Vasomotor innervation
    • Sympathetic
    • Secretomotor innervation
    • Parasympathetic
  50. What are the source of concretions?
    Goblet cells
  51. How do carotid arteries provide circulation of eyelid?
    • Internal carotid branches - Provide circulation for deeper eyelid tissue
    • External carotid - Provide circulation to superficial areas of eyelid
  52. What are the functions of tears?
    • Optical
    • Nutritional
    • Mechanical
    • Antibacterial
    • Corneal transparency
  53. How does vitamin A affect the eyes?
    • Goblet cells
    • Aqueous
    • Deficiency results in bitot's spots
  54. What autonomic nervous system controls reflex tearing
    Parasympathetic
  55. What causes spontaneous blinking?
    Contraction of palpebral portion of orbi. Oculi
  56. What causes reflex blinking?
    • Auditory
    • CN8
    • Touch or irritation
    • CN5 senses, CN7 causes blink
    • Dazzle (bright light)
    • CN2
    • Menace(visual threat)
    • CN2
  57. What is bell's phenomemon?
    Eyes go up and out on lid closure for protective purposes
  58. What muscles cause forced blinking?
    palpebral and orbital portions of orbicularis

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