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George Armstrong Custer
Leading the second prong of the army’s offensive against the Lakota Sioux in the black hills. He led 265 men of the 7th cavalry into the largest Indian camp ever assembled on the Great Plains and fought the Battle of the Little Black Horn. Indian Warriors led by sitting bull and crazy horse (Sioux tribe chiefs) had beat him and his army.
Dawes Allotment Act
Bill passed by congress in 1887 that divided up the Indian reservation to allotted parcels of land to individual Indians. Indian men and women were eligible to receive 160 acres of land. Indians who took the allotment earned U.S. citizenship. The government got to keep the land in a trust for 25 years, and since the land by far surpassed the acreage needed for allotment, the government reserved the right to sell the surplus of land. This act effectively reduced the Indian land from 138M acres to 48M acres.
Chinese Exclusion Act
- Federal law passed in 1882 that effectively ban all Chinese immigration to the United States. This act set precedent for further immigration laws. The act was passed in response to the large number of Chinese who had immigrated to the Western U.S as a result of unsettled conditions in China and the availability of
- jobs working on Railroads. The prospect of competition from poor Chinese immigrants scared most unskilled workers and labor unions denounced the Chinese Immigration. The act lead to a sharp drop in the Chinese population mainly because the Chinese immigrants were mainly single man did not have family to sustain their population.
- An Infamous leading railroad developer and speculator. His expertise in the stock market in 1882 gained him control of the Western railroads and the interest of 15% of the
- country’s tracks, by purchasing stocks of decaying railroads at a cheap price and undercut his competitors until they bought the stocks from him for a high price. Gould damaged his reputation in the gold speculation that instigated the panic of Black Friday in 1869.
John D. Rockefeller
- Founder of The Standard Oil Company in 1870 in Ohio and by 1877 monopolized the oil
- refinery business in the U.S. through buying rival refineries, rebate deals with the railroad companies, and developing companies for distributing and marketing refined oil and its products. In 1882 these companies were
- consolidates into the standard oil trust – which virtually gave Rockefeller 90% control of the nation’s oil refineries and pipelines through the horizontal integration or merger.
Corporate system in which corporations give shares to of their stock to trustees, who coordinate the industry to ensure profits to the participating corporations and curb competition. This system was pioneered by Rockefeller and Standard Oil Company. Later this system was found to be unfair and harmful to the free market and congress tried to regulate the trusts system with Sherman Anti-trust act and later abolish it entirely in 1914 by joined effort of Roosevelt and Taft.
Refers to investments sponsored by banks and the profits garnered from the sale of financial assets such as stocks and bonds. The decades at the end of the 20th century are known as the period of the finance capitalism because banks and financiers increasingly took the role of stabilizing the markets and reorganizing industries, like JP Morgan.
- American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation. His role in reorganizing and financing major business in the Railroad industry, General Electric and consolidating Carnegie steel with smaller steel business forming The United States Steel Corporation. He has significant
- influence over the nation’s high finance and U.S. Congress. He directed the banking coalition that stopped the panic of 1907. His dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform American businesses.
Gospel of Wealth
An essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889. In his essay Carnegie expresses the role of wealth and obligation to contribute back to society. It is a softer version of the social Darwinism where there is justification for accumulated wealth as a trustee fund until an opportunity to support society comes up.
Social theory based on Charles Darwin theory of evolution. It argued that all progress in human society came in as a result of competition and natural selection. The theory justifies the neglect of the poor in the name of race progress, any mean to intervene in the natural selection would delay the progress of humanity.
Jim Craw Laws
Laws enacted by Southern states and municipalities beginning in the 1880’s that legalized segregation between blacks and white. The Supreme Court ruling in Plessy V. Ferguson (1896) found constitutional the segregation under the Separate but equal. Railways, streetcars, restrooms. Restaurants, theaters, school, hospitals and even water fountains were segregated and designed for blacks, and were generally of inferior quality.
Interstate Commerce Commission
The ICC is the first regulatory commission in the U.S.history, it was established as a result of mounting public outrage in the 1880’s against railroad malpractices and abuses. The ICC was charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engages in transportation between states. Surface transportation under the ICC’s jurisdiction included railroad, trucking companies, bus lines, freight forwarders, water carriers, oil pipeline, etc.
Knights of Labor
First mass organization of America’s working class. Founded in 1869 by Uriah Stephens. Begun as a secret society in which protected the members from companies’ reprisals. In 1878 the knights abandoned their secrecy status and tried launch an ambitious campaign to organize all workers, skilled and unskilled bridging ethnicity, ideology, gender, race and occupation. The knights of Labors goal was an economic and social reform. The favored arbitration rather than a warfare and organized strikes for 8 hour work day, equal pay for equal work, child labors law, and safety enforcement. They were very popular union until the Haymarket bombing in which the union was blamed for instigating.
The People's Party
A third political group which Also known as the populists party emerged in 1892. Called for economic democracy and government intervention. The platform they adopted called for the free coinage of silver and issuance of larger amounts of paper currency as inflationary measured that in hope would ease the financial burden of the debt-ridden farmers. Get rid of the crop lien system and initiate a Sub-treasury system. They wanted to nationalize the railroads, and to expand the democratic franchise by adopting initiative, referendum, and recall processes.
The Homestead Lockout
Large labor strike against the Homestead Steel mills about the right of workers to unionize. The lockout began when a strike of the steel plant organized against the Carnegie management decision not to allow their craftsmen to join the American Federation of Labor (AFL). They went on a strike and forced the management to close down and shut away the strikers. The management led by Frick hired armed guards, the Pinkerton Detectives to protect the building and strikebreakers. The strikers went on a violent rampage and took over the plant. Their efforts fell short when a striker shot Frick. The public opinion turned against the workers who linked unionism with anarchism and therefore dangerous. The strike broke, workers went back to work and factory reopened.
Builder and founder The Town of Pullman completed with homes, schools, parks and markets. While Pullman’s intentions were partially philosophical and humanitarian – improved working conditions generate positive labor relations, he operated his town on a profit.
- Which means that rent and utilities are
- 1) higher than in surrounding area
- 2) payment deducted off the workers’ paycheck automatically.
When Pullman reduced wages at his plant, he rejected the worker’s request that rent and utility bill will also be reduced, the workers went on a strike. The Pullman strike supported by the American Railway Union (ARU) crippled America’s railroads for more than a month. Rioting in Chicago killed 30, and the strike ended a after a court order backed by federal and state troops forced workers back to work.
A challenge theory to social Darwinism. Basically it notes that by taking action human could speed up evolution by altering the environment. Reform Darwinism condemns laissez-faire and demanded that the government take more active approach to solving social problem. Became the ideological basis to the progressive reform.
A way to organized human labor to be more efficient and compatible with the age of the machine. This approach came to fulfillment as means to bring high profit and factory efficiency by breaking complex tasks to simple repetitive task in assembly line. This reorganizing of labor reduced associated costs of skilled craftsman and speed up manufactoring process. This reorganizing was made by Fredrick Taylor.
The Square Deal
Theodore Roosevelt’s stated domestic platform during his running for presidency campaign. Based on three ideas: conservatism, consumer protection and control of corporations. The square deal attached plutocracy and bad trusts while still protected businesses from extreme demands of organized labor unions. Roosevelt believed in government action to mitigate social unfairness.
A nickname coined by Theodore Roosevelt to a new investigative journalist type in popular newspapers whom were paid to expose and report about social injustice, political wrongdoing and revelations about the evils of corporate.
President William Taft’s foreign policy. U.S. efforts to further expand capitalistic holds in foreign countries through banks and investments rather than show of military power.
Telegraph from Germany to Mexico that was intercepted by the British army during WWI and one of the main reasons why the U.S. joined the Allied forces of England, France and Russia. The telegram itself promised German assistance to helpMexico regain all its lost provinces of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona in case of U.S. declaration of war on Germany. This telegram gave President Wilson the reason he needed to break its neutrality policy as he took it as a direct threat to American democracy and as German aggression.
An idea that capitalism and social industrialism can work together to improve lives of workers. This notion became popular during the 1920’s as industries extended the benefits of scientific management to improve safety at work, institute paid vacations and pension plans.
The New Woman
A new liberal and free woman figure in which abandoned the domestic sphere and entered the job force in positions that are more man oriented, she votes, smokes, drinks, cut their hair short, wear pants and a enjoy a much more sexual freedom.
A Black Nationalist leader who tried to establish the Back to Africa movement in the United States. He had put an emphasis on maintaining the purity of the black race and take pride in their cultural achievements. He tried to help black people gain economic and political independence entirely apart of the white society through his organization Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
The Scopes Trial
- The monkey trial – A public court case in Tennessee against the teaching of evolution on
- classroom. Creationism vs. evolutionist. Clearance Darrow was the leading defender of this test case in which he had the burden of proof that the teaching of the bible cannot be taken literally and therefore cannot be taught as fact in classroom, unlike the evolution theory. William Jennings Bryan defended his position in which God created all men. Darrow tore Bryan to pieces on the witness stand and basically through cleaver questioning made Bryan look like a fool who believe in miracles and sorcery. Albeit the media circus, court upheld the law and Scope was fined.
The Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)
FDR’s one of the first New Deal programs. The CCC was a public works project intended to promote environmental conservations, address unemployment and build good citizens though vigorous, disciplines outdoor labor. The work focused on soil conservation and reforestation. The men planted millions of trees, dug channels and ditches, and helped clear beaches and campgrounds. The work relief offered by the federal government replaced the stigma of welfare with the dignity of a job as government employee.
Democrat politician in Louisiana who later was elected to the U.S. Senate. Long did not believe that FDR’s new deal was through enough and sought to expend hid states powers to increase social welfare by building roads, schools, and hospitals. He wanted to distribute wealth more evenly by capping personal income at $1M and providing pension benefits to American citizens – paving the way to social security. He was assassinated in 1935.
Is a type of strike where the employees occupy their stations and refuse to work and stop production. Since they occupy their working station, it is hard to bring in a replacement or strikebreaker to continue the assembly line work. This form a strike was successful for workers of General Motors plant in Michigan back in 1937 where the workers strike reduced production significantly (150k-50 in a week) leaving the company no choice but to accept the Auto workers union as a representative agent for all the company’s workers.
One of the most significant and important feature of the new deal was the Social Security act of 1935, which created a federal insurance program based on an automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people’s working careers. Money would be then distributed back in a monthly payment once a person reached retirement age (65). Unemployed, disabled and single mother were also put another the Social security umbrella to support them through rough times.