Critical thinking ch. 1 and 2

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Critical thinking ch. 1 and 2
2014-07-21 04:41:34
critical thinking
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  1. objective claim
    whether it is true or false is independent of whether people think it is true or false 

    ex: there is life on mars, doesn't depend on whether people think there is
  2. subjective claims
    true or false is not independent of whether people think it is true or false 

    ex: is rice vinegar too sweet?
  3. moral subjectivism
    nothing either good or bad; but thinking makes it so
  4. objective questions/issues
    a question whose answer is not made true by the speaker's thinking that it is true
  5. argument
    an attempt to support or prove a contention by providing a reason for accepting it. The contention called conclusion, the statement offered as the reason for accepting the conclusion is referred to as premise
  6. premise
    the claim(s) in an argument that provide the reasons for believing the conclusion
  7. conclusion
    in argument, the claim for which a premise is supposed to give a reason
  8. belief bias
    the tendency to evaluate an argument by how believable its conclusion is
  9. false cnsensus effect
    refers to the inclination we may have to assume that our attitudes and those held by people around us are shared by society at large
  10. bandwagon effect
    refers to an unconscious tendency to align one's thinking with that of other people
  11. negativity bias
    the tendency people have to weight negative info more heavily than positive info
  12. loss aversion
    a bias; people generally are more strongly motivated to avoid a loss than to accrue a gain
  13. in-group bias
    a predisposition to find fault with outsiders
  14. fundamental attribution error
    the tendency to not appreciate that others' behavior is as much constrained by events and circumstances as our own would be if we were in their position
  15. obedience to authority
    the tendency to comply with instructions form an authority even when they conflict with their values
  16. overconfidence effect
    a tendency to overestimate the percentage of correct answers we have given to questions on a subject we are not experts about
  17. better-than-average illusion
    most of a group rate themselves as better than most of the group relative to some desirable characteristic, such as resourcefulness or driving ability
  18. valid argument
    an argument for which it is not possible for the premise to be true and the conclusion false
  19. sound argument
    a valid argument whose premises are true
  20. more support of premise
    stronger the argument
  21. balance of considerations reasoning
    trying to determine which considerations, both for the against thinking or doing something, carries the most weight
  22. IBE  - inference to the best explanation
    a form of inductive reasoning in which the best explanation for a phenomena is concluded to be the proper explanation of the phenomenon