sociology test 2.txt
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Shared cultural heritage, which typically involves common ancestors, language, and religion.
Refers to groups that are socially subordinate/discriminated against and culturally distinct
Do people of a certain race, ethnicity, or racial ethnic group have one singular experience
No, people disagree about use of language (such as blank or african american; latino or hispanic)
help explain racial and ethnic inequalities; prejudice additudes from the dominant group influence life (sterotypes)
Structural discrimination theories
Examines how racism is reinforced by larger system/organization of society
Discrimination against African Americans and Latinos
- - Happened throughout U.S. history
- - Some improvements (since 1990): anti-discrimination legislation, more presence in the middle class
- - Problems continue residential segregation
Which is larger the racial wealth gap or the income gap?
- The racial wealth gap
- sum of family assets
"the cost of being black"
What is the largest minority group in the US
How many people in the US have a diability?
What increases your chances of having a disability?
- increase in age
How many people were born with a disability?
- 15% born with disability
- 85% experience disabling condition.
Individual medical model of disability
- - Disability is any physical or mental condition that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
- - Try to "fix" the individual, make the more "normal"
Social model of disability
- - The real disability is being labeled "different" or "abnormal"
- - Limited physical access, access to resources, negative attitudes create barriers
- - Don�t change the person, make the environment accessible.
A more complec model of disability
- - Combination of medical and social models
- - Disability- reduced ability to perform life activities that are made worst by individual and institutional discrimination.
Why are people with a disability defined as a minority group?
- - Defined as different
- - Called derogatory names
- - Minority as master status
- - Categorized, stigmatized, and stereotyped
socially defaulted trait
Matrix of domination
intersecting systems of inequality aka intersectionality
negative attitude toward a certain category of people
unfavorable action toward a group of people
the ability to exery power, make free choices
when a group of people develop organization(s) to promote or resist social change
Americans with disability act (ADA) 1990
- - Federal law requires accessibility (ramps, parking spaces, use of Braille)
- - ADA has been weakened, not enforced.
Which minority group has the highest unemployment and poverty rate?
People with disabilities have the highest unemployment and poverty rates of minorities.
What are the key issues facing the elderly?
- - Inadequate income
- - High cost of health care
- - Abuse of the elderly
- - Ageism- as expressed by doctors, media, employment, etc.
How much of the voting population do the elderly make up?
Peoples whose cash incomes are at half of the poverty line or less
Personal responsibility and work opertunity reconciliation act
- - passed in 1996, it reformed the welfare system
- - shifted welfare programs from the federal govt to the states
- - mandated that welfare reciepients find work within 2 years
- - limited welfare assistance to 5 years
- - cut various federal assistance programs targeted for the poor by 54.5 billion over 6 years
Government monies and services provided to the poor
Government subsidies to the nonpoor
Legal tax loopholes that allow the affluent to escape paying certain taxes and therefore recieve a subsidy
tax rate that remains the same for all people, rich or poor; results in poor people paying a larger portion of their wealth than the affluent people
Belief that the place of people in the social stratification system is a function of their ability and effort
Social classifications based on ability
Blaming the victim
- Belief that some individuals are poor, criminals, or school dropouts because they have a flaw within them, ignoring the social factors
- affecting their behavior
Event that occurs because it is predicted. When people alter their behavior to conform to the prediction of others
Culture of poverty hypothesis
View that the poor are qualitatively different in values and lifestyles from the rest of society and that these cultural differences explain continued poverty
When the social arrangements and accepted ways of doing things in society disadvantage minority groups
Why are the poor poor?
- Not because they refuse to work but rather because they work at low wages, cannot find work, work part time, are homemakers, are ill or disabled, or are in school.
How many people acctually recieve govt help? is the assistance sufficient to eleminate the poor's economic deprivation?
- less than half recieve federal assistance and it is not sufficient.
Compared to the nonpoor the poor have a higher incidence of what things?
- health problems, malnutrition, social pathologies, and homelessness
Who recieves most of govt assistance?
- The nonpoor recieve 3/4th of federal monies allocated to human services through tax expenditures and other subsidies further redistributing the nations wealth upwards
Research shows that the poor
poor pay more than the nonpoor for many services
innate inferiority hypothesis
A theory that holds certain categories of people are disadvantaged because they are less well endowed mentally.
What are the criticisms of culture of poverty and innate inferiority theories?
- by blaming the victim both theories ignore how social conditions trap individuals and groups in poverty
contrasts blaming biological or cultural dificiences of the poor by instead focusing on how society is organized in a way that creates poverty and makes certain people vulnerable to being poor
What does the elimination of poverty require?
- - a comitment to accomplish that goal
- - a program based on the assumption that poverty results from a lack of resources rather than from a deviat value system
- - a program based on the assumption that poverty results from inequalities in society
- - recongnition that poverty cannot be eliminated by the efforts of the poor themselves, by the private sector of the economy
- by charitable individuals or groups, or by the effort of state and local governement alone.
- - recognition that poverty is a national problem and must be attacked by massive, nationwide programs largely financed and organized by the federal government
What are the three types of poverty and what do they need?
- -The unemployed or underpaid: need adequate training, guarenteed employment, and a guarenteed minimal income
- - The inabled or incapacitated: need govt subsides to meet their needs
- - The children of the poor: need education and opportunities to break the poverty cycle
What is racial and ethnic stratification? why do they exist?
- - basic features of U.S. society; they exclude people from full and equal participation in society's institutions.
- they exist because they benefit certain segments of society.
The conccept of race
- is a social invention and is not biologically significant; racial groups are set apart and singled out for unequal treatment
What groups are systematically disadvantaged by society's institutions?
- minority racial and ethnic groups. both race and ethnicity are traditional bases for social inequality.
What are the three main features of intitutional discrimination?
- - the forces of history shape
- - discrimination can occur without conscious bigotry
- - discrimination is reinforced by the interrelationships amoung the institutions of society
What is happening to the racial demography if the US?
it is chaging dramatically; there are high immagration and birthrates amoung minorities making the US a multiracial, multicultural society. These trends create racial anxiety and racial conflict.
How has public policy shifted?
- from race-conscious remedies to a color-blind climate that is dismantling historic civil rights reforms
- Group assigning subordinate status to minority groups
- systems of inequality in which race is the major criterion for rank and rewards
- subordinate group in society
- Culturall distinctive characteristics based on race, religion, or national origin
- overt acts by individuals that harm members of another race
- established and customary social arrangements that exclude on the basis of race
- the disproportionate exposure of some racial groups to toxic substances
- idea taht race no longer matters in explaining inequality or policy making, since racism has been overcome.
- biological fact of femaleness and maleness
- cultural and social definition of feminine and masculine
- differentiation of women's and men's behaviors, activities, and worth
- view that supports equal relations between women and men
- differential ranking rewarding of womens and mens roles
- all social institutions are organized by gender
- beliefs, meanings, and placement that value men over women and that institutionalize male control of socially valued resources
forms of social organization in which men are dominant over women/
- the system of sexuality that imposes negative sanctions on those who are homosexual or bisexual
- a way of organizing the social world on the basis of sexual identity
condition of capitalism in which male supremecy keeps women in subordinate roles at work and in the home
Gender roles approach
- males and females differ because of socialization. The assumption is that males and females learn to be different
Gender structure approach
- males and females differ because of factors external to them
- the intergration of traditional feminine and masculine characteristics
- pattern whereby women and men are situated in different jobs throughout the labor force
- raising pay scales according to the worth of the job instead of the personal characteristics of the workers
- An invisible barrier that limits women's upward occupational mobility
- behavior that does not conform to social expectations
- sexual orientation toward someone of the opposite sex
- beliefs and practices that enforce heterosexual behavior as normal while stigmatizing other forms of sexual expression
- sexual orientation toward someone of the same sex
- sexual orientation toward or attraction to both sexes
- powerful negative social label that affects a person's social identity and self concept.
- person's choice regarding the sex of people to whom he or she is attracted.
- sexual attraction to the same or opposite sex is not a matter of choice but is determined by genetic or enviromental factors
- fear or loathing of homosexuality and homosexuals
- oral or anal sex
- homosexuals who openly identify themselves as such and challenge society in an effort to eliminate the stigma and discrimination they face
set of often contradictory sterotypes about people with disabilities that act as a barrier to keep them from achieving their full potential
of the dominant belief system, which privileges the group in power
attribute that is socially devalued and disgraced.
- status that has exceptional importance for social idemtity, overshadowing other statuses.
- being defined as a member of a minority group is a master status
universal and undeniable reality
reduced ability to perform tasks one would normally do at a given stage of life that is exacerbated by the individual and institutional discrimination encountered
the state of being mentally or physically challanged
the study of population
baby boom generation
the people born in the 15 year period following ww2.
taxing at a set percentage, which takes a larger proportion of the wealth from the poor than from the nonpoor
- the proportion of the population who work compared to the proportion who do not work
- the approach in a health facility that focuses on meeting the needs of the residents
- the approach in a health facility that focuses on meeting the needs of the institution, resulting in poor quality care for patients
beanpole family structure
- a family structure in which the number of living generations within linkages increases, but there is an itrageneraltional contraction in the number of members
- within each generation
- where parents care for both their parents and their children simultaneous
- the devaluation and discrimination of the elderly
- people are the agents and actors who cope with, adapt to, and change social structures to meet their needs
- the response by some people to the aging process of retreating from relationships, organizations, and society.
WHat is the second major demographic shift?
- the shift toward an aging society ("the greying of america)
What are the demographics of the elderly?
- - women outnumber men
- - minorities are underrepresented
- - elderly who are women or minority are disproportionaly poor
The social security program
- the only source of income for about 1/2 of retired people and a major source of income for 80% of the elderly.
How is the social security program biased
- - some workers are not included
- - people with low career earnings recieve fewer benefits
- - women are disadvantaged
- - the tax is regressive
What are problems associated with medicare
- - from the prospective of the elderly it does not pay enough of medical expenses
- - the program is too expensive for the government to finance adequately
What are the abuses associated with nursing homes? about how much of the population live in these homes?
- residents are given custodial care, drugged and provided with inadequate nutition occurs in about 1/3rd of nursing homes; about 5%
phisically abused elderly
- 1.5 million abused mostly by children who are overwelmed.
In what ways do the elderly respond to their devalued status
- they may:
- - withdraw from society
- - continue to act as they have throughout their adult lives
- - become politically active to change the laws, customs, and social structures that disadvantage them
What is the minority status of homosexuals based upon?
- deviance from societys norms
What are the important characteristics of social deviance?
- - it is socially created
- - it is a relative concept NOT absolute
- - it is found universally in society
- - it serves society by reaffirming the rules
- - it allows the powerful to determine who or what is deviant
- - it creates an atmosphere in which deviants can be stigmatized for their disreputable behavior
What are the three types of oppression gays face?
- - ideological, stemming from from traditional homophobic beliefs, especially religious and medical
- - legal, stemming from law and court decisions
- - occupational where job advancement and income are resticted or denied
when did the challange to change society's oppression of homosexuals begin?
- with the stonewall inn riot in 1969.
How does US society rank and reward women and men?
What does gender work with?
- the inequalities of race, class and sexuality to produce different experiences for all women and men
How is gender inequality reinforced?
- through language, interpersonal behavior, mass communication, religion, the law, and politics
- - the basic source of women's inequality in the workforce. Work oppurtunities for women tend to concentrate in a secondary market that has
- few advancement oppertunities, fewer job benefits and lower pay.
What keeps women of color at the bottom of the work hierarchy?
- the combined effects of gender and racial segregation in the labor force. they must face harsher working conditions and lower earnings
The global economy is?
- strongly gendered. around the world womens labor is key to global development strategies
What does gender inequality deprive society of?
- potential contrubutions of half of the society, creates poverty amoung families headed by women, and limits the capacities of all women and men
- aimed at eliminating inequality have created significant changes at all levels of society.
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