critical thinking ch. 3 & 4

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  1. vague
    a word/phrase that if the group of things to which it applies has borderline cases
  2. ambiguous
    a word, phrase, sentence said that when it has more than one meaning
  3. semantic ambiguity
    ambiguity produced by the inclusions of an ambiguous word/phrase
  4. grouping ambiguity
    a kind of semantic ambiguity in which it is unclear whether a claim refers to a group of things taken individually/collectively
  5. fallacy of division
    when he/she reason from the fact that a claim about a group taken collectively is true to the conclusion that the same claim about members of the individually is also true
  6. fallacy of division
    when he/she reasons from the fact that each member of a group has a certain property to the conclusion that the group as a whole must have that property
  7. syntactic ambiguity
    when a claim is open to two or more interpretations because of its structure -or syntax
  8. ambiguous pronoun references
    when it is not clear to what or whom a pronoun is supposed to refer
  9. general claim
    the less detail a claim provides
  10. lexical defintions
    tell us what the word ordinarily means
  11. stipulative definition
    • a word needs to take on a special meaning in a given context
    • know intuitively without regard to evidence, logic, intellectual examination
  12. precising definitions
    reduce vagueness or generality or to eliminate ambiguity
  13. persuasive/rhetorical definitions
    can be used to persuade, uses emotive meaning
  14. definition by example (ostensive definition)
    pointing to, naming, or otherwise identifying one or more examples of the sort of thing to which the term applies
  15. definitions by synonym
    giving another word or phrase that means the same as the term being defined
  16. analytical definition
    specifying the features that a thing must possess in order for the term being defined to apply to
  17. background information
    that immense body of justified beliefs that consists of facts we learn from our own direct observations and facts we learn from others
  18. initial plausibility
    a rough assessment of how credible a claim seems to us
  19. interested party
    one that stands to gain from our belief in the claim
  20. disinterested parties
    those who haven o stake in our belief one way or another
  21. expertise
    education, experience, accomplishments, reputation, and position
Card Set:
critical thinking ch. 3 & 4
2014-07-21 08:59:57
critical thinking
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