Cell Phys Chapter 5

Card Set Information

Cell Phys Chapter 5
2014-07-22 10:09:47
Cell Phys
Chapter 5 - Organelles
Show Answers:

  1. Intracellular complexes necessary for eukaryotic life
  2. Cytosol + Organelles =
  3. Prokaryotic life =
  4. Organelles enclosed by
  5. Metabolic pathways that occur in cytoplasm of cell
    • Glycolysis
    • Pentose phosphate pathway
    • Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis (glycogen synthesis and degredation) 
    • Fatty acid synthesis
  6. Organelles involved in protein synthesis
    • Nucleus
    • Ribosomes
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Golgi complex
  7. All Cells except RBC's contain
    A nucleus
  8. DNA material is contained in
    Nucleolus, mitochondria - all within the nucleus
  9. Number of chromosome pairs in every normal cell
  10. Nucleus components
    • Envelope
    • Pores
    • Nucleoplasm
    • Lamina
    • Ncleolus
  11. Phospholipid bilayer membrane of nucleus
    Nuclear envelope
  12. Communication betweennucleus and cytosol occres at the
    Nuclear pores
  13. Fluid inside nucleus
  14. Structural organization by intermediate filaments in the nucleus
    Nuclear lamina
  15. Suborganelle of nucleus where ribosomes are made
  16. Ribosomes are composed of
    Ribosomal RNA (60%), and protein (40%)
  17. Primary site of protein synthesis during translation from messenger RNA
  18. 2 subunits of Ribosomes
    • Large - 3 rRNA and 50 proteins
    • Small 0 1 rRNA and 30 proteins
  19. Two places ribosomes are found
    Either free or bound to endoplasmic reticulum (built in nucleolus, found there initially)
  20. Protein synthesis by ribosomes happens primarily on the
    Endoplasmic retiulum (rough ER)
  21. Membrane of ER is composed of
    Lipid bilayer
  22. Prteins synthesized in Rough ER are
    Incorporated into organelle membrane
  23. Proteins from free-standing ribosomes remain
    In cytoplasm (cytosol)
  24. Smooth ER responsible for
    Lipid and steroid hormone synthesis
  25. Contains a complex of enzyemes called cytochrome P450 that are responsible for drug and hormone metabolism
    Smooth ER
  26. Cytochrome P450 is responsible for
  27. Both rough and smooth ER are involved in
    Glycosylation of proteins (addition of carbs)
  28. Responsible for sorting newly synthesized proteins
    Golgi apparatus
  29. End of golgi apparatus nearest ER
    Cis cisterna
  30. Closest to plasma membrane (part of golgi)
    Trans side
  31. Part of golgi complex where carbs, lipids, phosphates are added to proteins
  32. Where GAG's, proteoglycans and lysosomes are synthesized
    Golgi complex
  33. Proteins are specialized by enzymes within the
    Golgi apparatus
  34. Powerhouse of the cell
  35. More metabolically active cellsl contain more or less mitochondria
  36. Half life of mitochondria
    7-10 day
  37. Mitochondria contains its own DNA, which means it's able to
    Self replicate
  38. Membrane of mitochondria
    Lipid bilayer
  39. Inner membrane of mitochondria is
    Highly folded (cristae)
  40. Process of protons being pumped out of mitochondria matrix, electrochemical gradient being formed, and flow of hydrogen back into miochondria driving ATP synthesis is called
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  41. Oxidative phosphrylation makes mow much ATP/glucose
  42. What cells don't contain mitochondria?
  43. What do RBC's depend on for energy?
    Anaerobic fermentation of glucose through glycolysis and lactic acid produuction
  44. Apoptosis of a cell begins
    In the mitochondria
  45. Lysosomes are made where
    Golgi complex
  46. Lysosomes membrane
    Ingle phospholipid membrane
  47. Contained in lysosomes to digest proteins, carbs, lipids, nucleic acids and phospholiids
    Acid hydrolases
  48. Important for digesting old or injured organelles
  49. If lysosomes do not function properly,
    Accumulation of macronutrients can be devastating
  50. PeroXisome membrane
    Single phospholipid membrane
  51. Peroxiisomes are made
    In theh ER
  52. Synthesis of cholesterold and bile in liver occur here
  53. Myelin is made of
  54. Contains oxidative enzymes to break down fatty acids, purines and alcohol
  55. Contains catalase - enzyme to detoxify h2o2