Chapter 17 Digestive System

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Chapter 17 Digestive System
2014-07-21 15:06:17
Chapter17 ICC Davis Digestive System
A&P 2
Chapter 17 Digestive System ICC:Davis
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  1. Eating
  2. Peristalsis, the movement of food
  3. The mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods into a form that cell membranes can absorb
  4. Breaking large pieces into smaller pieces without changing chemical composition
  5. Changes food chemically
  6. Passage of digestive food from food tube into circulatory system
  7. Elimination of wastes
  8. How long is the alimentary canal?
    30 feet or 8 meters long
  9. What are the organs of the alimentary canal?
    • Mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • anus
  10. What are the accessory organs of the digestive system?
    • Salivary glands
    • liver
    • gall bladder
    • pancreas
  11. What are the 4 layers of the alimentary canal wall?
    • Mucous membrane (mucosa)
    • submucosa
    • muscular layer
    • serous (serosa)
  12. The innermost layer of the alimentary canal wall which has no direct blood supply, made of epithelium, connective tissue, and smooth muscle.
    Mucosa (mucous membrane)
  13. This layer of the alimentary canal wall has tiny folds and projections to increase surface area and functions in protection, absorption, and secretion.
    Mucosa (mucous membrane)
  14. Made of loose connective tissue, this layer of the alimentary canal wall contains blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and glands. It functions to nourish surrounding tissue, and transport absorbed materials away.
  15. This layer of the alimentary canal wall, made up of circular and longitudinal fibers of visceral smooth muscle, functions in peristalsis.
    Muscular layer
  16. This outermost layer of the alimentary canal wall has a layer of epithelial and connective tissue that wraps around your organs (visceral peritoneum) and functions to protect and secretes fluid to moisten the outer surface of those organs
    serous (serosa)
  17. This movement of the alimentary canal causes smooth muscle in small segments to contract rhythmically to mix contents
    mixing movements
  18. A wavelike motion in the alimentary canal, rings of contraction with relaxation in front
  19. This part of the nervous system inhibits digestive activities
  20. This part of the nervous system increases digestive activities
  21. This part of the digestive system receives food, mastication, small pieces and saliva
  22. The lateral walls which help hold food inside of the mouth
  23. Has sensory receptors for temperature and texture. Blood vessels give color
  24. The narrow space between the teeth, cheeks and lips
  25. The thick, muscular organ in the floor of the mouth
  26. Connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth
  27. Anchored to the hyoid, this mixes food and moves it into the pharynx
  28. Masses of lymphatic tissue to protect the body against infection
    lingual tonsils
  29. The roof of the mouth
  30. The area of the palate with maxillary bones and palatine bones
    hard palate
  31. The area of the palate with an arch extending downward into the uvula
    soft palate
  32. Closes between the nasal cavity and pharynx during swallowing
    uvula and soft palate
  33. Closes off the glottis during swallowing
  34. Tonsils associated with the tongue
    lingual tonsils
  35. When these tonsils become inflamed it is called tonsillitis
    palatine tonsils
  36. Lymph tissue on the posterior wall of the pharynx, which may be removed if it blocks the nasal passage
    phayngeal tonsils (adenoids)
  37. Adenoids
    phayngeal tonsils
  38. Chamber between the palate and tongue
    oral cavity
  39. Break up food mechanically to increase surface area
  40. Hardest structure in the body but not part of the skeletal system
  41. First set of teeth
    primary (deciduous)
  42. How many deciduous teeth?
  43. Second set of teeth
  44. How many permanent teeth?
  45. Teeth used for biting
  46. How many incisors?
  47. Teeth used for grasping and tearing
  48. How many cuspids?
  49. 8 teeth used for grinding
  50. 12 teeth used for grinding
  51. Last set of teeth to come in
  52. The area beyond the gum, covered by enamel
  53. The hardest substance of the teeth which wears away with age and can't be replaced
  54. The living part of crown, beneath enamel, harder than bone, extends into root, surrounds pulp cavity
  55. This part of the teeth contains pulp, blood vessels and nerves
    pulp cavity
  56. Anchored in the jaw, has root canals
  57. The functions of saliva
    • moistens food
    • binds food together
    • begins carbohydrate digestion
    • makes taste possible
    • helps cleanse mouth and teeth
    • regulates pH
  58. Moistens food and binds food together
  59. Begins carbohydrate digestion and regulates pH
  60. Makes taste possible and helps cleanse the mouth and teeth
  61. Found in saliva to help keep pH levels between 6.5 and 7.5
    bicarbonate ions
  62. The cells found in salivary glands which secrete the enzyme amylase
    serous cells
  63. The cells found in salivary glands which secrete mucous to bind food
    mucous cells
  64. The largest salivary gland, anterior and inferior to the ear, rich in amylase
  65. The salivary gland located in the floor of the mouth, made mostly of serous cells
  66. The salivary gland located under the tongue made mostly of mucous cells
  67. The passageway at the back of the mouth with skeletal muscle in the walls
  68. With no digestive role, this connects the nasal cavity with the larynx and the esophagus with the oral cavity
  69. The passage for air, opens to Eustachian tubes to middle ear (above soft palate)
  70. Passageway for food and air (behind mouth)
  71. Passageway to the esophagus (inferior to oropharynx)
  72. The 3 stages of swallowing
    • Voluntary, food is chewed, mixed with saliva, rolled into a bolus, and forced into the pharynx by tongue
    • Involuntary reflexes move food into the esophagus, breathing halts
    • Food is moved by peristalsis into the stomach
  73. 25cm long passageway through the thoracic cavity from pharynx to stomach, located posterior to the trachea
  74. The opening where the esophagus passes through the diaphragm
    esophageal hiatus
  75. Condition where the esophageal hiatus tears
    hiatal hernia
  76. Ring of smooth muscle between esophagus and stomach to prevent regurgitation
    cardiac sphincter
  77. J-shaped organ under the diaphragm
  78. Receives food and mixes food with gastric juices and starts digestion of proteins
  79. Carries on a small amount of absorption and moves food into the small intestine
  80. The region of the stomach near the esophagus
    cardiac region
  81. The region of the stomach which is a temporary storage area which may fill up with air and show up on x-ray
    fundic region
  82. The main part of the stomach
    body region
  83. The region of the stomach near the small intestine
    pyloric region
  84. The ring of smooth muscle controlling passage into the small intestine
    pyloric sphincter
  85. Cells which secrete mucus to protect the stomach
    mucous (goblet) cells
  86. Cells which secrete pesinogen
    Chief cell
  87. Inactive form of pepsin
  88. Cells which secrete HC1
    parietal cells
  89. Changes pH to acid and activates pepsinogen to become pepsin which starts digestion of proteins
  90. Parietal cells secrete this to aid in the absorption of vitamin B12 from the small intestine
    intrinsic factor
  91. The phase of gastric secretion where parasympathetic reflexes are triggered by sight, taste, smell, or thought of food before it enters the stomach
    cephalic phase
  92. The phase of gastric secretion where gastrin is secreted when food enters the stomach, stimulates gastric juice secretion
    gastric phase
  93. The phase of gastric secretion when food first enters the intestine, intestinal gastrin is released and temporarily increases gastric secretions
    intestinal phase
  94. As food continues to move into the small intestine, what type of reflexes inhibit gastric secretions?
  95. Semifluid mixture of food and gastric juice
  96. What does the rate of chyme leaving the stomach depend upon?
    Fluid level and type of food
  97. How long does it take for fats to leave the stomach?
    3-6 hours
  98. Located behind the stomach and connected to the duodenum by the pancreatic duct
  99. As an exocrine gland it secretes pancreatic juice
  100. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum by what?
    Pancreatic duct
  101. As an exocrine gland, the pancreas secretes what?
    Pancreatic juice
  102. Contains enzymes and high bicarbonate ion concentration that neutralizes the acidic pH of chyme
    pancreatic juice
  103. Makes the contents of the small intestines basic
    pancreatic juice
  104. What are the 2 hormones from the small intestines which trigger the release of pancreatic juice?
    • Secretin
    • cholecystokinin
  105. Pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate
  106. Pancreatic juice rich in enzymes
  107. Enzyme which changes starch into disaccharides
  108. Enzyme which changes fat into fatty acids and glycerol
  109. Enzyme which changes nucleic acids into nucleotides
  110. Enzymes which breakdown proteins into peptides
    • trypsin
    • chymotrypsin
    • carboxypepsidase
  111. The inactive form of trypsin
  112. Trypsinogen is changed into trypsin by this enzyme from glands in the small intestine
  113. These two enzymes are inactive in pancreatic juice until trypsin is formed
    • chrmotrypsin
    • carboxypeptidase
  114. Largest internal organ
  115. This organ is highly vascularized
  116. What are the 4 lobes of the liver?
    • Left
    • right
    • quadrate
    • caudate
  117. The fundamental unit of the liver contained in each lobe
    hepatic lobules
  118. In hepatic lobules, these radiate from a central vein
    hepatic cells
  119. Where do hepatic cells radiate from in hepatic lobules?
    A central vein
  120. The channels between hepatic lobules
    hepatic sinusoids
  121. Blood from digestion enters hepatic lobules from here
    hepatic portal vein
  122. Nutrients mix with oxygenated blood in hepatic lobules from where?
    Hepatic artery
  123. From hepatic lobules, blood flows over ____ and out ____
    • hepatic cells
    • central canal
  124. Functions of the liver
    • metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
    • deamination of amino acids and the forming of urea
    • storage of substances (iron, blood, vitamin A, D, B12)
    • filtering blood (Kupffer cells in sinusoids remove bacteria by phagocytosis)
    • destruction of toxic chemicals (alcohol)
    • secretion of bile
  125. What organ metabolizes carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins?
  126. What organ deaminates amino acids and is involved in the formation of urea?
  127. What organ functions to store substances such as iron, blood, vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin B12?
  128. What organ filters blood?
  129. Cells in sinusoids which remove bacteria by phagocytosis
    Kupffer cells
  130. This organ destructs toxic chemicals, such as alcohol
  131. Organ involved in the secretion of bile
  132. Contains what, bile salts, bile pigments (from breakdown of rbc), cholesterol, and electrolytes
  133. The only part of bile with a digestive role
    bile salts
  134. Functions to emulsify fats and aids in absorption of fatty acids, cholesterol, and vitamins
  135. Reabsorbed in the small intestine for re-use
    bile salts
  136. Triggers the release of bile from the small intestine
  137. Located in a depression on the inferior surface of the liver
    gall bladder
  138. Stores bile between meals
    gall bladder
  139. Pear-shaped sac connected to the cystic duct which joins the hepatic duct
    gall bladder
  140. Cystic and hepatic duct which leads to duodenum
    common bile duct
  141. Tubular organ between the stomach and large intestine which is 18-20 feet long
    small intestine
  142. What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
    • Duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  143. Double-layered fold of peritoneum which suspends jejunum and ileum from posterior abdominal wall
  144. Drapes the stomach, large intestine, and small intestine, and controls the spread of infection
    greater omentum
  145. Controls movement from ileum to large intestine
    ileocecal valve
  146. Line small intestine to increase surface area and aid in mixing and absorption of nutrients
  147. Cavity within the small intestine with villi to increase surface area
  148. Made of simple columnar epithelial with microvilli, connective tissue, lacteal (lymph capillaries), blood vessels, and nerve fibers
  149. Secretions of the small intestine
    • mucous
    • watery fluid
    • enzymes
  150. Helps move food into villi in the small intestine
    watery fluid
  151. The enzymes released from intestinal glands in the small intestine
    • peptidase
    • sucrase, maltase, lactase
    • lipase
    • enterokinase
  152. Turns peptides into amino acids
  153. Turns disaccharides into monosaccharides
    • sucrase
    • maltase
    • lactase
  154. Turns fat into fatty acids and glycerol
  155. Turns trypsinogen into trypsin
  156. Absorption and digestion in the small intestine is stimulated by what?
    Gastric juices and chyme
  157. Monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol, water, and electrolytes are absorbed where?
    Villi in small intestine
  158. How are fats absorbed?
    Enter lacteals and go to lymph
  159. Small ring-like contractions in the small intestine
  160. Weak, slow movements (3-10 hours) in the small intestine
  161. Due to overdistension or severe irritation in the small intestine
    peristaltic rush (diarrhea)
  162. Reabsorbs water and electrolytes
    large intestine
  163. Forms and stores feces
    large intestine
  164. Contains bacteria that makes vitamins (K, B12, thiamine, riboflavin)
    large intestine
  165. Beginning pouch-like structure of the large intestine with a narrow tube called vermiform (lymphatic)
  166. Four parts of the colon
    • ascending
    • transverse
    • descending
    • sigmoid
  167. Part of the large intestine where feces is stored
  168. Swollen rectal veins in the anal columns
  169. Where are hemorrhoids located?
    Anal canal
  170. 2 sphincter muscles in the anus
    • internal anal sphincter
    • external anal sphincter
  171. Which anal sphincter is controllable?
    External anal sphincter
  172. Made of 75% water, undigested material, electrolytes, mucus and bacteria
  173. What is the color of feces caused by?
    Bile pigments
  174. Odor of feces is caused by?
    Bacterial products
  175. How much gas do most people pass daily?
    • ½ liter
    • 99% from nitrogen gas and oxygen taken in during the day