critical thinking chapter 5, 6

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  1. Rhetorical force/emotive meaning
    their power to express and elicit images, feelings, and emotional associations
  2. rhetoric
    refers to the study of persuasive writing
  3. rhetorical devices
  4. slanters
    rhetorical bells and whistles have names cuz they are so common and so well understood; primarily used to give statement a positive or negative slant regarding a subject
  5. euphemism
    a neutral or positive expression instead of one that carries negative associations
  6. dysphemism
    opposite of euphemism; used to produce a negative effect on a listener's or reader's attitude toward something or to tone down the positive associations it may have
  7. weaselers
    linguistic methods for hedging a bet; weakening a claim
  8. downplayers
    an attempt to make something or something look less important or less significant
  9. stereotype
    a generalization or an assumption about all the members of a group that is based on an image of those in the group
  10. significant mention or paralipsis
  11. innuendo
    includes many ways of getting a point across without explicitly committing oneself to it
  12. loaded question
    rests on one or more unwarranted or unjustified assumptions
  13. horse laugh
    include ridicule and vicious humor of all kinds
  14. hyperbole
    extravagant overstatement
  15. rhetorical definitions
    use emotively charged language to express or elicit an attitude about something
  16. rhetorical explanations
    same kind of slanting device
  17. rhetorical analogy
    a comparison of two things or a likening of one thing to another in order to make one of them appear better or worse than it might be
  18. proof surrogates
    an expression used to suggest that there is evidence or authority for a claim without actually citing such evidence or authority
  19. pseudoreasoning
    the support they may appear to offer is only pretended support; pretend reasoning
  20. argument from outrage
    consists of inflammatory words (or thoughts) followed by a 'conclusion' of some sort; substitutes anger for reason and judgment in considering an issue
  21. scapegoating
    blaming a certain group of people, or even a single person for all of life's troubles
  22. scare tactice
    trying to scare people into doing something or accepting a position
  23. argument by force
    simpler method might be to threaten the person
  24. argument from pity
    when feeling sorry for someone drives us to a position on an unrelated matter
  25. argument from envy
    find fault with a person because of envy, guilty of this fallacy
  26. apple polishing
    means old fashion flattery
  27. wishful thinking
    when we accept or urge acceptance (or rejection) of a claim simply because it would be pleasant (or unpleasant) if it were true
  28. guilt trip
    eliciting feelings of guilt to get others to do or not to do something, or to accept the view that they should or should not do it
  29. peer pressure "argument"
  30. groupthink fallacy
    substituting pride of membership in a group for reason and deliberation in arriving at a position on an issue
  31. nationalism
    a powerful and fierce emotion that can lead to blind endorsement of a country's policies and practices
  32. red herring
    bring a topic into a conversation that distracts from the original point
  33. smoke screens
  34. appeal to popularity
    urge something to accept a claim simply on the grounds that all or most or some substantial number of people believe it
  35. appeal to common practice
    consists in trying to justify or defend an action or practice
  36. appeal to tradition
    a name that is self=explanatory; do thing cuz theres the way things have always been done
  37. rationalizing
    use a false pretest to satisfy our own desires or interests
  38. two wrongs make a right
Card Set:
critical thinking chapter 5, 6
2014-07-22 03:06:26
phil341 wcu
critical thinking
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