Card Set Information
Broad sheet of tendon
Composition of tendon
Lots of Collagen Type 1 fibers, other collagens, some elastic fibers, some reticular fibers
Energy storing tendons
Higher proportion of elastic tendons than positional tendons
Achillies tendon (calf muslces to calcaneus); acts as a "spring" for calf muscles
How much ground substance in tendons?
Tendon cell type
Specialized fibroblasts/cytes called tendinocytes or tenocytes (tenocytes more common)
Composition of tendons
Collagen fibers, ground substance, tendon cells, fibrocartilage
Fibrocartilage tends to be found
Where the tendon attaches to a bone, or around a bony prominance when tendon rounds a corner
Tendon fascicles surrounded by
Thin membrane of loose connective tissue - called either endotendineum or peritendineum
Tendon fibers tend to be bound into
Within the peritendineum, we find
Blood vessels and nerve fibers
Are blood vessels found within the fascicles of a tendon?
Nope, only in the connective tissue surrounding it
Fibroblasts are found
In the loose connective tissue surrounding the fascicle
Cluster of fascicle is called
Tendon is clusters of fascicles surrounded by
Dense irregular connective tissue
1 layer on outside of tendon
2 layers with fluid in between
Strap-like arrangement of dense regular connective tissue, much less complex than a tendon connecting one bone to another
Cells that produce new connective tissue in the event of an injury or damage
Repair process of tendons are slow due to
Low blood supply (no blood supply within the tendon, only within the peritendineum)
Repair process of ligaments is slower than tendons due to
Even fewer blood vessels (no peritendineum, no smattering of vesselsl throughout), also no specialized cells (like fibroblasts) like tendons do
Collagen fibers are in a "braided" formation in ligaments or tendons?
Ligaments, tendons have more perpendicular fibers
Ligaments or tendons more stretchy?
Ligaments, especially between vertebrae - due to more elastic fibers (also more reticular fibers, less collagen)
Ligaments or tendons have Sharpey's fibers?
Both! Perforating fibers that penetrate the outer layer of bone tissue
Function of a ligament
Hold bones together (two separate bones, sometimes 2 portions of the same bone)
Limits movement of joints
Broad strap of connective tissue that holds underlying muscle tissues underneith
Ground substance of cartilage is
Specialized cells in cartilage tissue
Specialized cartilage cells that tend to be more superficial
Specialized cartilage cells that tend to be deep/inferior
Small space within the inferior space of cartilage that houses chondrocytes
On the outside layer of cartilage - dense connective tissue consisting of mainly Type 1 collagen fibers
Within the matrix of cartilage, how many blood vessels?
None at all
The only type of connective tissue that has no blood supply at all
Why aren't there blood vessels in the cartilage?
Cartilage tends to be under compresive force.With the semi-rigid ground matter, it would break blood vessels when compression occured
Most prevalent type of cartilage within the body
Costocartilage is made of what kind of catilage
Articular cartilage of a joint is what kind of cartilage
Cartilage in the trachea is what kind of cartilage
Larynx is mostly made of what type of cartilage
Cartilages of the nose are what type of cartilage?
A lot of bones start out in a block of cartilage. What type of cartilage is it?
Epiphiseal (growth) plates are made of what type of cartilage?
Most rigid type of cartilage
All 3 types of cartilage are rigid due to
Really high concentration of fibers
Hyaline has a high concentration of what type of fibers?
Type II collagen with a smattering of Type IX (binding) and Type VI collagen (none of which is visible under light microscope)
Ground substance of hyaline cartilage is mostly
Water (75%), bound to GAG's, which in turn are bound to proteoglycans
Types of GAGs found in the ground substance of hyaline cartilage
Chondroiten sulfate, with a small amount of karatan sulfate
Helps bind proteoglycans to Type II cartilage in hyaline cartilage
Form hyaline cartilage is typically found in
Block form, covered with perichondrium
A covering layer of dense connective tissue over hyaline cartilage
Two exceptions to perichondrium covering of hyaline cartilage
Articular cartilage (on joint surfaces of bones, especially long bones)
Epiphysial (growth) plates
Blood supply to hyaline cartilage is provided by
A layer of blood vessels between the perichondrium and cartilage
Type of cartilage found in the ear
Type of fiber that composes most of elastic cartilage
Type of cartilage found in the epiglottis, part of larynx
Type of cartilage that forms the pharyngotympanic tube
Ground substance of elastic cartilage is very similar tothe ground substance of
Main difference of ground substance between hyaline and elastic cartilage
Elastin fibers instead of type II collagen fibers
Elastic cartilage is covered in
Pubic symphisis is a sight for what type of cartilage?
Intervertebral discs are mostly what type of cartilage
Meniscus of the knees are made of what type of cartilage?
Consisancy of fibrocartilage
Least rigid type of cartilage
Fibrocartilage (highly malleable)
The type of cartilage you find in tensile strength-type situations
Ground substance of fibrocartilage is similar to
Both elastic and hyaline cartilage
Ground substance of fibrocartilage is composed of
The same things hyaline cartilage is composed of, just less dense
Fibrocartilage is malleable because of
The types of fibers found in it
If you took dense connective tissue and made the fibers more dense, you would end up with
Type of fiber most predominant in the ECM of fibrocartilage
Type I collagen fibers
Perichondrium is not found surrounding what type of cartilage?
During early fetal development, chondroblasts starts to manufacture
Cartilage matrix (ground substance, fibers, etc)
Interstitial growth is associated with