MCAT physics 2
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Thermodynamics, Calories, and Temperature
Thermodynamics - the study of heat transfer and its effects.
Calorie (C)- Quantity measure of heat = 103 calories = 4.134 x 103 J
Temperature (T) - a measure of the KE (heat content) of particles
Kelvin: the most commonly used temperature unit with 0K = absolute zero
TK = TC + 273
Three methods of heat transfer
Conduction - the transfer of energy via molecular collisions
Convection - the transfer of heat through fluids (gas, liquid or super-critical fluids) by the physical motion of the fluid
Radiation - the transfer of energy via electromagnetic waves of motion...only form possible of energy transfer in a vacuum.
1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics
- 1st Law: The change in internal energy (U) of a system is equal to the heat (Q) transferred into the system, minus the energy lost by the system when it performs work (W).
- U = Q - W
Q = 0 ... W = -U
W = 0 ... Q = U
: U = 0 ... Q = W
The universe always tends towards an increase in entropy
measure of the dispersion of energy of a system
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