Lesson 1: A First Look at the Body

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jesidawn
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279452
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Lesson 1: A First Look at the Body
Updated:
2014-07-23 07:49:05
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study
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A&P 1
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anatomy and physiology
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  1. The heart is _______ to the arms.
    Medial
  2. The wrist is ______ to the elbow.
    Distal
  3. The elbow is _____ between the shoulder and the wrist.
    Intermediate
  4. The lungs are _____ to the ribs.
    Deep
  5. Define a plane as it is used in anatomy, and list the planes that are used in describing the human body.
    • a plane is a flat surgace resulting from an imaginary or actual cut that divides the body into specific parts:
    • Sagittal/Parasagittal plane
    • Horizontal or Transverse plane
    • Frontal plane
  6. List and briefly describe the body cavities.
    • Dorsal: includes cranial cavity and spinal canal
    • Ventral: includes thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
    • Scrotal: present in males only
  7. What single molecular constituent is necessary for formation of a bilayer membrane?
    pure phospholipid
  8. In addition to the plasma membrane, which cellular organelles are composed of or bounded by bilayer lipid membranes?
    • Nucleus
    • ER - endoplasmic reticulum
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Mitochondria
  9. List the four types of tissue found in the body. Which tissues come from which embryonic layers?
    • Muscle - mesoderm
    • Nervous - ectoderm and endoderm
    • Epithelial - ectoderm and endoderm
    • Connective - mesoderm
  10. What is the definition of an organ?
    a structure composed of more than one tissue that performs multiple functions.
  11. abdominal qudrants
    divides the abdomen into four quadrants
  12. abdominopelvic cavity
    inferior to the diaphragm, part of the ventral body cavity
  13. adhesion molecules
    allow the cells of a tissue to recognize one another and stick together
  14. adipocytes
    fat cells derived from fibroblasts. Interior of each is dominated by a droplet of fat.
  15. adipose tissue
    specialized tissue for the storage of fat.
  16. ADP
    an energy depleted form of ATP
  17. anatomical position
    the patient is erect, facing the viewer, with feet pointed ahead, arms at the sides, and the palms of the hands turned forward.
  18. appendicular region
    One of the fundamental regions of the body, consisting of the limbs or extremities.
  19. ATP
    • the general chemical energy source for energy-requiring cellular processes.
    • synthesized within the mitochondria from the oxidation of foodstuffs
  20. axial region
    One of the fundamental regions of the body, consisting of the head, neck, and trunk.
  21. bilayer
    double layer
  22. blood plasma
    A fluid component containing salts; some organic solutes; dissolved gases and proteins.
  23. body cavities
    • hollow spaces within the body that contain internal organs:
    • dorsal 
    • ventral 
    • scrotal
  24. bone marrow
    The site of synthesis of blood cells in adults.
  25. canaliculus
    Small channels that allow nutrients and oxygen to reach osteocytes and cellular wastes to be removed.
  26. cancellous bone
    spongy bone that is surrounded by compact or dense bone
  27. cardiac muscle
    Makes up the walls of the heart and is responsible for circulating blood to all parts of the body.
  28. cartilage
    A strong, flexible, smooth material composed of collagen and chondroitin that, in adults, supports some soft tissues; covers the ends of bones; and provides bearing surfaces for joints.
  29. chondrocytes
    cells that secrete cartilage
  30. chondroitin
    A type of intercellular substance formed by connective tissues. A tough, flexible material that is a major component of cartilage, one form of connective tissue.
  31. collagen
    A type of intercellular substance formed by connective tissues composed of giant, fibrous molecules that may be arranged in bundles or as a mesh.
  32. columnar
    cells that are cylindrical with heights greater than widths
  33. compact bone
    an outer covering that surrounds a core of cancellous bone
  34. connective tissue
    holds body parts together and contributes to the structural integrity of the other tissue types
  35. connective tissue proper
    composes a loosely arranged structural framework for almost every tissue
  36. cranial cavity
    within the skull containing the brain
  37. cuboidal
    cells that are as wide as they are tall
  38. cytoplasm
    intracellular fluid
  39. cytoskeleton
    scaffold of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and move
  40. differentiation
    process in which unspecialized cells acquire specific cellular structures and become specialized to perform specific functions
  41. directional terms
    terms used to describe the relationships of individual structures and regions
  42. ectoderm
    In the earliest stages of embryonic development, the outermost layer of the unspecialized embryonic cells that separate into three layers.
  43. elastin
    A type of intercellular substance formed by connective tissues composed of giant, fibrous molecules that may be arranged in bundles or as a mesh.
  44. endocrine glands
    • formed by epithelial cells 
    • secrete hormones into the blood
  45. endoderm
    n the earliest stages of embryonic development, the innermost layer of the unspecialized embryonic cells that separate into three layers.
  46. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    An internal membrane system that contains proteins and lipids destined for various metabolic fates within the cell, for secretion to the exterior, or for incorporation into the plasma membrane.
  47. epithelial tissue
    • A specific tissue that develops from the ectoderm and endoderm, consisting of sheets of cells.
    • form barriers between the interior of the body and the external environment,
    • covering the body’s surface and
    • lining hollow internal organs.
  48. erythrocytes
    red blood cells
  49. exocrine glands
    • secrete substances by way of ducts to the exterior 
    • salivary glands of the mouth or sweat glands of the skin
  50. extrinsic
    proteins are less tightly attached and may be removed by chemical treatments that do not dissolve the membrane.
  51. fibroblasts
    characteristic cells that secrete intercellular materials
  52. formed elements
    in the blood includes erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
  53. frontal section
    Passes parallel to the midline and at right angles to the plane of the sagittal section and would divide the body into dorsal and ventral portions.
  54. glia
    support the neurons and maintain a favorable environment for their functions
  55. glycoproteins
    strands of sugar molecules attached to the proteins
  56. Golgi apparatus
    Closely stacked sacs of endoplasmic reticulum that serve as a sorting station for proteins synthesized by ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
  57. Haversian canal
    central canal that contains blood vessels and nerves surrounded by each osteon
  58. horizontal section
    A cut at right angles to the midline and dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.
  59. hormones
    chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands
  60. hyaluronic acid
    a major type of intercellular substance formed by connective tissues
  61. intercellular material
    material secreted by fibroblasts
  62. intermediate filaments
    One of three basic types of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and to move.
  63. intrinsic
    proteins are tightly associated with the membrane and in some cases span it from one side to the other.
  64. lacunae
    spaces between lamellae occupied by osteocytes
  65. lamellae
    Concentric rings of a mineralized intercellular substance surrounding the Haversian canal.
  66. leukocytes
    white blood cells
  67. ligaments
    structures that hold joints together
  68. mesoderm
    In the earliest stages of embryonic development, the unspecialized embryonic cell layer that lies between the ectoderm and endoderm.
  69. microfilaments
    One of three basic types of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and to move.
  70. microtubules
    One of three basic types of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and to move.
  71. midline
    median line or median plane of the body or some part of the body
  72. midsagittal section
    If the body were sliced into equal right and left halves, this cut would pass through the sagittal plane along the midline of the body.
  73. mitochondria
    Rod-like structures consisting of a double-bilayer membrane that are the sites of the reactions of terminal oxidative metabolism.
  74. neurons
    Nervous tissues that generate and conduct electrical impulses and communicate with other cells by way of chemical messages.
  75. nucleus
    Contains the genetic material (DNA) together with molecules that affect expression of specific parts of the genetic code.
  76. organelles
    structures contained within the cytoplasm
  77. osteoblasts
    osteocytes that synthesize bone
  78. osteoclasts
    osteocytes that break down bone
  79. osteocytes
    bone cells
  80. osteons
    units of compact bone
  81. oxidative phosphorylation
    The process in mitochondria that involve the reactions of terminal oxidative metabolism, where the energy from oxidation of foodstuffs is applied to the synthesis of ATP and ADP.
  82. parasagittal planes
    planes that cut the body to the right or left of the midline generating unequal portions
  83. plasma membrane
    the outer boundary of the cell containing membrane proteins embedded in it and attached to its surfaces
  84. pseudostratified
    Some simple epithelia, which are one cell layer thick, —they do consist of one cell layer, but some of the cells are not tall enough to reach all the way from one side of the sheet to the other.
  85. receptors
    membrane proteins that detect chemical messages from other cells
  86. ribosomes
    organelle composed of proteins and rRNA that synthesize proteins based on codes delivered to them in the form of mRNA
  87. scrotal cavity
    hollow internal space present only in males
  88. simple epithelia
    one structural type of epithelia one cell layer thick
  89. skeletal muscle
    muscle attached to the bony skeleton that moves body parts relative to one another
  90. smooth muscle
    Muscle that surrounds hollow internal organs, including the stomach and intestine, the air passages in the lungs, and blood vessels; also forms the iris of the eye.
  91. spinal cord
    contained within the vertebral canal within the vertebral column
  92. spinal roots
    contained within the vertebral canal within the vertebral column as part of the spinal cord
  93. squamous
    cells that are flattened and resemble paving stones
  94. stem cells
    within tissue, required cells that regenerate new differentiated cells
  95. stratified epithelia
    one structural type of epithelia composed of multiple cell layers
  96. tendons
    connect skeletal muscles to the bony skeleton
  97. thoracic cavity
    the superior part of the ventral body cavity enclosed by the ribcage
  98. thrombocytes
    platelets, a component in blood
  99. trabeculae
    a mineralized meshwork in cancellous bone
  100. transport proteins
    determine what goes into and out of the cell
  101. transverse section
    the horizontal plane that is the result of a horizontal cut that divides the body into superior and inferior parts
  102. ventral body cavity
    contains the soft internal organs
  103. vertebral column
    the spine
  104. vertebral canal
    the spinal canal within the vertebral column
  105. viscera
    the soft internal organs

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