Lesson 2: The Skin (Integumentary System)

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Lesson 2: The Skin (Integumentary System)
2014-07-28 07:04:30
A&P 1
anatomy and physiology
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  1. List the major functions of the skin.
    • 1. protection
    • 2. synthesis of vitamin D
    • 3. thermoregulation
    • 4. somatosensory perception
  2. List of layers of epidermis from deepest to outermost layer.
    • stratum basale or stratum germinativum
    •     (new keratinocytes are formed here)
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum granulosum
    •     (synthesize and store keratohyalin)
    • then in hands and feet go to stratum lucidum
    •     (here cells are filled with elaidin)
    • other parts of body go to stratum corneum
    •    (dead keratinocytes filled with keratin)
  3. Three types of specialized epidermal structures.
    • hair
    • nails
    • dermal glands
  4. areolae
    pigmented areas of the breasts
  5. arrector pili
    a tiny bundle of smooth muscle that is attached to each hair follicle
  6. axilla
  7. basal cell carcinoma
    • arises from cells in the basal layer of the epidermis
    • does not spread rapidly
    • tends not to metastasize
  8. carcinoma
    malignant tumor
  9. cerumen
    a protective coating for the meatus (ear wax)
  10. ceruminous glands
    located in the external auditory meatus (ear canal) and secrete cerumen
  11. conduction
    as long as the temperature of the body surface exceeds that of the environment, heat can be lost through direct heat flow if the skin is in contact with a cooler object
  12. convection
    as long as the temperature of the body surface exceeds that of the environment, heat can be lost to the environment through the air movement across the skin surface if the skin is in contact with a cooler object
  13. core body temperature
    temperature of the central thorax, abdomen, and brain
  14. cornified layer
    outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum
  15. deep-coiled portion
    part of the eccrine sweat glands, the coiled portion generates a primary secretion of fluid by secreting NaCl into the gland lumen
  16. dermal glands
    • include the sebaceous glands, sudoriferous glands, mammary glands, and ceruminous glands
    • arise from the epidermis in the process of embryonic development
  17. dermis
    • Made up of connective tissue with abundant extracellular fibers of collagen and elastin. Within this layer of skin are:
    • hair follicles, sebaceous glands, the ducts of sweat glands, capillaries, and the sensory receptors responsible for sensitivity to pressure and vibration.
  18. duct portion
    part of the eccrine sweat glands, the primary secretion of fluid from the deep-coiled portion passes through this
  19. eccrine sweat glands
    • type of sudoriferous gland
    • most dense in the palms of hands and soles of feet
    • produce a dilute solution containing many of the constituents of blood plasma
  20. elaidin
    translucent substance formed from keratohyalin
  21. epidermis
    • stratified squamous epithelium that contains
    • keratinocytes, melanocytes, and immunocytes
  22. evaporative cooling
    promotes heat loss from the body surface in which some heat is absorbed by the water in the process of it transformation from a liquid to a gas
  23. first-degree burns
    • burns that involve mainly damage to the epidermis
    • require no special treatment
    • typically heal rapidly without scarring
  24. full-thickness burns
    third-degree burn affecting the dermis and subcutaneous tissue
  25. hair follicle
    encloses the root of a hair in the skin
  26. holocrine glands
    sebaceous glands in which the secretions are formed as a product of the breakdown of dead gland cells
  27. hypodermis
    • underneath the dermis and is not technically part of the skin
    • subcutaneous layer containing loose connective tissue, arterioles, venules, and adipose tissue
  28. immunocytes
    provide a first line of defense against invasion by microbes, fungi, and parasites
  29. keratin
    protein produced by keratinocytes
  30. keratinocytes
    cells responsible for the wear resistance and waterproof qualities of skin
  31. keratohyalin
    precursor of keratin
  32. lactation
    production of milk by the mammary glands during a period of infant nutrition after birth
  33. lunula
    the crescent shaped region at the base of the nail
  34. malignant melanoma
    • arises from melanocytes in the skin or in pigmented moles
    • some forms spread very rapidly and also metastasize freely to other body tissues
  35. mammary glands
    • located within the breasts of females
    • modified sweat glands that have evolved to produce milk during a period of infant nutrition after birth
  36. matrix
    located at the base of each hair follicle where the hair grows
  37. melanin
    pigment in the skin
  38. melanocytes
    • produce melanin
    • partly responsible for skin color
  39. merocrine glands
    sudoriferous glands in which part of the secretory cells themselves appears in the secretion
  40. metastasize
    carcinoma spreads to other areas of the body
  41. nail groove
    nails arise from the matrix of stem cells located here at the base of each nail
  42. nail matrix
    where the growth of the nail occurs
  43. nevus
    a pigmented mole
  44. papillary layer
    • layer of the dermis, consisting of fingerlike projections that project into the overlying epidermis
    • contain an extensive capillary network that supplies the needs of the basal layers of the epidermis
    • plays an important role in heat loss from the body core
  45. partial thickness burns
    second degree burns
  46. radiation
    as long as the temperature of the body surface exceeds that of the environment, heat can be lost to the environment through the transfer by electromagnetic radiation if the skin is in contact with a cooler object
  47. reticular layer
    layer in the dermis, largely composed of a network of crisscrossing collagen and elastin fibers that give the skin its elasticity and resilience
  48. sebaceous glands
    holocrine glands that are associated with hair follicles and secrete an oily sebum onto the skin surface
  49. sebum
    an oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands onto the skin that reduces the loss of moisture and contains antimicrobial chemicals
  50. second degree burns
    these burns involve at least some damage to the dermis
  51. skin grafts
    • islands of transplanted skin are created within the burned region, using small flakes of skin removed from unburned body surfaces
    • increase the rate of recolonization of new skin cells to the burned area
  52. squamous cell
    • arises from cells in the stratum spinosum
    • has a higher probability of metastasis
  53. stratum basale
    • deepest layer of the skin 
    • also called the stratum germinativum
  54. stratum corneum
    outermost layer of skin, twenty to thirty cells deep, consisting entirely of dead keratinocytes filled with keratin
  55. stratum germinativum
    deepest layer of skin where new keratinocytes are continuously produced from stem cells
  56. stratum granulosum
    • cells begin to synthesize and store keratohyalin here
    • layer after stratum spinosum
  57. stratum lucidum
    consists of cells filled with droplets of elaidin
  58. stratum spinosum
    new keratinocytes push upward into this layer above the stratum germinativum
  59. subcutaneous fat
    • adipose tissue that protects underlying organs from mechanical shock
    • serves a thermal insulation
    • contributes to the sex specific body contours of men and women
  60. sudoriferous glands
    sweat glands
  61. thermoregulation
    process that maintains the core body temperature constant within a few tenths of a degree celsius
  62. third degree burns
    • also called full thickness burns
    • both the dermis and subcutaneous tissue are affected
  63. tonic
    a steady rate of nerve impulses along sympathetic nerves to superficial blood vessels that maintains some degree of vascular tone in those vessels
  64. the skin plays a role in several important bodily functions, including synthesis of _______.
    vitamin D
  65. ______ are the most abundant cells in the epidermis, and they give skin its waterproof qualities.
  66. All keratinocytes originate in the epidermal layer known as the ______.
    stratum basale
  67. Goosebumps occur because of the action of tiny muscles called ______, which are attached to each of a person's hair follicles.
    arrector pili
  68. Epidermal derivatives called ______ glands are responsible for the skin's production of sweat.
  69. The cell type in the skin that is responsible for the skin color is _____.
  70. The most abundant type of cell in the epidermis is called ______.
  71. The two most common protein molecules in the dermis are _______ and _______.
    collagen and elastin
  72. Hair and nails are dead epithelial derivatives that are durable because the possess an abundance of what protein?