Lab 3 Digestive, Respiratory, and Urinary Systems

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Lab 3 Digestive, Respiratory, and Urinary Systems
2014-07-23 14:26:20
Lab3 ICC Davis P2 digestive respiratory urinary
A&P 2
Lab 3 Digestive, Respiratory, and Urinary Systems ICC:Davis A&P 2
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  1. Membrane lining the internal surface to the abdominal wall
    parietal peritoneum
  2. membrane covering the abdominal viscera
    visceral peritoneum
  3. a double layered membrane that drapes from the stomach over the transverse colon and the small intestine
    greater omentum
  4. a double layered membrane that suspends the jejunum and ileum from the posterior abdominal wall
  5. supports the blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic vessels that supply the intestinal wall
  6. An indicator of glucose
    benedict's solution
  7. An indicator of startch
  8. A substance that is used to visually show the presence of some other substance, usually by changing color
  9. Responsible for providing the body with the nutrients essential for life
    digestive system
  10. Functions of the digestive system
    • ingestion
    • propulsion
    • digestion
    • absorption
    • elimination
  11. The 2 groups of organs that make up the digestive system
    • alimentary canal
    • accessory organs
  12. The organs of the alimentary canal
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • anus
  13. The accessory organs of the digestive system
    • salivary glands
    • pancreas
    • liver
    • gall bladder
  14. Supplying oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the body is the major role of what system?
    Respiratory system
  15. The four phases of respiration
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • external respiration
    • internal respiration
    • cellular respiration
  16. The movement of air from the atmosphere into the lungs that occurs when you inhale (inhalation or inspiration) and exhale (exhalation or expiration)
    pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
  17. Breathing in
  18. Breathing out
  19. An active process requiring the contraction of the diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and other respiratory muscles
  20. A passive process which involves the relaxation of the diaphragm and the recoil of the thoracic cavity and lungs
  21. The process by which oxygen from the alveoli moves into the blood of the pulmonary capillaries and carbon dioxide from the blood of the pulmonary capillaries goes into the alveoli
    external respiration
  22. The movement of oxygen from capillary blood into body cells and carbon dioxide from body cells into capillary blood
    internal respiration
  23. Occurring within the body cells, is the utilization of oxygen to breakdown nutrients to produce energy (ATP)
    cellular respiration
  24. Functions of the respiratory system
    • move aire to and from the atmosphere outside the body and the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs
    • provide more surface area for the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between air and circulating blood
    • produce sounds involved in speaking, singing, and communication
    • provide oxygen needed for the maximum production of energy (ATP from nutrient molecules while ridding the body of carbon dioxide (a waste product)
    • to maintain the pH of the blood
  25. 2 divisions of the respiratory system
    • upper respiratory system
    • lower respiratory system
  26. The respiratory system is seperated from the abdominopelvic cavity by what?
  27. The parts of the upper respiratory system
    • external nares
    • nasal cavity
    • paranasal sinuses
    • pharynx
  28. The parts of the lower respiratory system
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • alveoli
    • lungs
  29. The openings into which air passes from the environment
    external nares (nostrils)
  30. Passageway through which air is warmed, moistened, and filtered by nasal mucosa and is the location of olfactory receptors
    nasal cavity
  31. Act as resonance chambers in speech and warm and moisten air
    paranasal sinuses
  32. Connects nasal and oral cavities to larynx and esophagus, is the common pathway for air and food and has three parts
  33. The 3 parts of the pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  34. Voice box
  35. Contains the vocal cords and consists of nine cartilages
  36. Windpipe
  37. The passageway with C-shaped cartilage rings that conveys air to the bronchi and is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  38. Functions to allow the esophagus to expand during swallowing and keeps the trachea open while reinforcing the trachea walls
    C-shaped cartilate of trachea
  39. Branch right and left from the trachea into their respective lungs
    bronchi (primary)
  40. What does each primary bronchus branch into?
    Secondary bronchi
  41. Supplies each lobe of the lung
    secondary bronchi
  42. Branches into 3 secondary bronchi
    right primary bronchi
  43. Branches into 2 secondary bronchi
    left primary bronchi
  44. The secondary bronchi subdivides into what?
    Tertiary bronchi
  45. Subdivides into tertiary bronchi which divides into bronchioles
    secondary bronchi
  46. What do the tertiary bronchi divide into?
  47. Serve each small lobule and further subdivide into terminal bronchioles
  48. What do bronchioles subdivide into?
    Terminal bronchioles
  49. What do terminal bronchioles branch into?
    Respiratory bronchioles
  50. Branch into respiratory bronchioles
    terminal bronchioles
  51. A few air sacs bud from the sides of these
    respiratory bronchioles
  52. Divide into alveolar ducts that lead into clusters of alveoli called alveoli sacs
    respiratory bronchioles
  53. What do respiratory bronchioles divide into?
    Alveolar ducts
  54. Lead into clusters of alveoli called alveoli sacs
    alveolar ducts
  55. What are clusters of alveoli called?
    Alveoli sacs
  56. Thin-walled, microscopic air sacs
  57. Bud off alveolar sacs and are analogous to an individual grape of a cluster
  58. Covered with capillaries which are the location of the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases
  59. What are alveoli covered with?
  60. Soft, spongy organs occupying the entire thoracic cavity, except the mediastinum
  61. In humans, what divides the left lung into two lobes and the right lung into three lobes?
  62. How many lobes does the left lung have?
  63. How many lobes does the right lung have?
  64. What divides the lungs in the thoracic cavity?
  65. The continual branching of the passageways into the lungs is referred to as the what?
    Respiratory tree
  66. The maintenance of a constant ____ is crucial for the proper functioning of the body
    blood pH
  67. What is the normal pH value of blood?
  68. The changes in the rate and depth of breathing are regulated by ____ in the blood
    chemical changes
  69. Slow, shallow breathing with little exhalation
  70. The retention of too much CO2 can cause the pH values to fall, causing ____
    repsiratory acidosis
  71. Abnormalities of the respiratory system, such as asthma or hypoventilation can cause this
    respiratory acidosis
  72. What happens if there is too much CO2?
    • CO2 reacts with H2O in presense of carbonic anhydrase forming carbonic acid
    • carbonic acid splits forming hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion
    • rise in hydrogen ion concentration lowers pH, more acidic blood
    • Lower pH increases rate and depth of breathing
    • CO2 is eliminated
  73. Can cause too much CO2 to be eliminated
  74. Rapid, deep inhalations
  75. What happens if there is not enough CO2?
    • Hydrogen ion concentration decreases as the H+ combine with bicarbonate ions forming carbonic acid
    • Blood hydrogen ion concentration drops, pH raises becoming more basic and respiratory alkalosis results
  76. A solution which, within limits, neutralizes acidic or basic solutions
  77. Bicarbonate serves as a ____
  78. Serves as a buffer
  79. Structure between the pharynx and the trachea that houses the vocal cords
  80. Tubular organ that leads from the larynx to the bronchi within the lungs
  81. Two branches at the distal end of the trachea that leads into the lungs
    • bronchi
    • referred to as right/left primary bronchi
  82. Membrane that lines the internal wall of the thoracic cavity
    parietal pleura
  83. Membrane that covers the surface of the lungs
    visceral pleura
  84. Potential space separating the two pleural layers, not an actual space
    pleural cavity
  85. Organs responsible for gas exchange with our external environment
  86. Sheet-like structure largely composed of skeletal muscle and connective tissue that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
  87. Appears colorless in an acid environment and becomes pink to purple in a basic environment
  88. What is phenolphthalein
    an indicator
  89. Compounds containing a nonmetal and oxygen
    nonmetal oxides
  90. Nonmetal oxides react with water to produce what?
  91. Nonmetal oxides are often called ____
    acidic anhydrides
  92. Functions to regulate metabolic wastes, pH, electrolytes, and water content in the body
    urinary system
  93. What is the urinary system composed of?
    • Kidneys (2)
    • ureters (2)
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  94. Performs the important task of filtering the blood
  95. The functional units of the kidneys
  96. Can either concentrate or dilute the urine with the waste substances found in the blood, thus balancing the body's internal environment (homeostasis)
  97. How is the functional state of the kidneys assessed?
    • Physical examination
    • chemical examination
    • microscopic examination of the urine
  98. Microscopic examination of the urine
  99. Before modern techniques were developed, how did doctors test urine?
    • Appearance
    • odor
    • taste
  100. What is urinalysis used to diagnose?
    • Kidney disease
    • track treatment
    • diagnose kidney disorders
  101. Used to diagnose kidney disease, to track treatment, and diagnose kidney disorders
  102. Normally consists of 95% water and 5% solids such as urea, uric acid, hydrogen ions, sodium chloride, and other electrolytes
  103. Substances which have a renal threshold that must be exceeded before the substance is excreted usually indicate what if present in the urine?
  104. What are 3 common factors that are checked in urine specimens?
    • Color
    • presence of glucose
    • pH
  105. The urinary pigment
  106. What is the color range for normal urine?
    Light yellow to amber
  107. What can cause light or darker urine?
    • Foods
    • drugs
    • diseases
  108. Alcohol produces what color urine?
    Clear – light yellow
  109. Phosphate/carbonate drugs produce what color urine?
    Clear – light yellow
  110. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus produces what color urine?
    Clear – light yellow
  111. Carrots can produce what color urine?
    Yellow orange – to dark green
  112. Antibiotics can produce what color urine?
    Yellow orange – to dark green
  113. Bilirubin from obstructive jaundice produces what color urine?
    Yellow orange – to dark green
  114. Beets produce what color urine?
    • Red – red brown
    • smoky red
    • dark wine
  115. Laxatives produce what color urine?
    Red – red brown
  116. Hemoglobin in urine produces what color urine?
    Red – red brown
  117. Anticonvulsants produce what color urine?
    Smoky red
  118. Unhemolyzed red blood cells from urinary tract produce what color urine?
    Smoky red
  119. Anti-inflammatory drugs produce what color urine?
    Dark wine
  120. Hemolytic jaundice causes what color urine?
    Dark wine
  121. Rhubarb produces what color urine?
    • Brown black
    • brown
  122. Antidepressants produce what color urine?
    Brown black
  123. Melanin pigment from melanoma produces what color urine?
    Brown black
  124. Barbiturates produce what color urine?
  125. Anemia or liver infections produce what color urine?
  126. Green food dyes produce what color urine?
  127. Diuretics produce what color urine?
  128. Bacterial infections produce what color urine?
  129. Normal urine pH
  130. Low urine pH
    less than 4.5
  131. High urine pH
    greater than 8.0
  132. A high protein diet, and cranberry juice causes what type of pH?
    Low pH
  133. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus causes what type of pH?
    Low pH
  134. Severe anemia causes what type of pH?
    High pH
  135. Diets rich in vegetables and dairy products cause what type of pH?
    High pH
  136. Should not be present in the urine under normal circumstances
  137. A severe metabolic disorder due to defective carbohydrate utilization
    diabetes mellitus
  138. May be present in the urine after a big meal or during times of emotional stress
  139. Composed of highly modified secretory units and specialized ducts
  140. The secretory units of the kidney
    renal corpuscles
  141. Found in the outer cortex of the kidney tubule
    renal corpuscles
  142. The outer, epithelial wall of the renal corpuscles
    Bowman's capsule (glomerular capsule)
  143. The conspicuous “little ball” which occupies most of the interior of the corpuscles
  144. Structures which produce a filtrate of blood plasma in the kidneys
    • glomerular capsule
    • glomerulus
  145. The inner medulla, the bulk of the kidney, consists of what?
    Renal tubules
  146. Specialized ducts that receive the plasma filtrate from the glomerulus and process it into urine
    renal tubules
  147. Together, the renal corpuscles and tubules comprise what?
    Nephron (the functional unit of a kidney)
  148. Transitional epithelium in the urinary bladder is also referred to as ____
  149. A substance that is used to visually show the presence or absence of some other substance, usually by changing color
  150. Largest lobe of the liver
    right medial lobe
  151. Section of the small intestine which is located nearest to the stomach
  152. Section of the large intestine that is located nearest to the small intestine
  153. Which membrane supports the blood vessels and nerves that supplies the intestinal wall?
  154. Membrane that lines the internal wall of the abdominal cavity
    parietal peritoneum
  155. Membrane may function to prevent the spread of infection within the abdominal cavity
    greater omentum
  156. The membrane that covers the abdominal viscera
    visceral peritoneum
  157. Organ that is embedded in the right median lobe of the liver
    gall bladder
  158. Part of the liver which is divided into cranial and caudal parts
    right lateral lobe
  159. Located internally, what is the distal section of the large intestine which is used for storage?
  160. Referred to as the “Adam's apple”.
    Thyroid cartilage
  161. Passageway for both air and food
  162. Branches from trachea into each lung
    primary bronchi
  163. Opening to trachea; between vocal cords
  164. Smallest bronchiole with a few air sacs
  165. A thin-walled, microscopic air sac
  166. During inhalation the pressure within the thoracic cavity is ____ as the volume is ____
    • decreased
    • increased
  167. During exhalation the pressure within the thoracic cavity is ____ as the volume is ____
    • increased
    • decreased
  168. Potential space between pleurae
    pleural cavity
  169. Microscopic, an individual air sac
  170. Connects larynx to primary bronchi
  171. Covers tracheal opening when swallowing
  172. Lines wall of thorax
    parietal pleura
  173. Serves as resonant chambers for speech
    paranasal sinuses
  174. Covers the lung
    visceral pleura
  175. Called the “throat”
  176. Separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
  177. Type of cartilage composing the epiglottis
  178. Branch from the tertiary bronchi
  179. Refers to branches of lung passageways
    respiratory tree
  180. When inflated, the texture of the cat lung is described as ____
    soft and spongy
  181. During the inflation of the cats lungs, the lungs appear as ____
    multiple lobes
  182. How many lobes are found in the lungs of the cat?
  183. A person with an arterial blood pH of 7.62 would be in a state of ____
  184. What effect does breathing in and out of a paper bag have on a person's arterial carbon dioxide levels?
    The level increases
  185. What does the term transitional mean?
    Tissue's ability to change its shape from cuboidal shaped cells to squamous shaped cells when stretched
  186. What is the normal pH of urine?
  187. Renal tubules are generally lined with which type of epithelium?
    Simple cuboidal
  188. What is a nephron?
    Functional unit of kidney
  189. The structure that transports urine out of the body
  190. A stratified epithelium which is able to change it's shape; also called urothelium
    transitional epithelium
  191. Renal tubules are lined with what type of epithelium?
    Simple cuboidal epithelium
  192. What is the primary function of the urinary bladder?
    A urine reservoir
  193. What type of gland is the adrenal gland?
  194. How many openings are in the urinary bladder?
  195. Located against the dorsal body wall on either side of the vertebral column, these organs are retroperitoneal