Chapter 20 Urinary System

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ginarjones
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279495
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Chapter 20 Urinary System
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2014-07-23 15:47:01
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Urinary system P2 ICC Davis anatomy physiology chapter20
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A&P 2
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Chapter 20 Urinary System ICC:Davis A&P 2
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  1. Removes nitrogenous wastes and various salts that would become toxic in the body
    urinary system
  2. Maintains normal concentrations of water and electrolytes in body fluids
    urinary system
  3. Regulates pH, volume of body fluids, red blood cell production, and blood pressure
    urinary system
  4. What does the urinary system remove from the body that would become toxic if they remained?
    Nitrogenous wastes and various salts
  5. The urinary system maintains normal concentration of what in body fluids?
    Water and electrolytes
  6. What does the urinary system regulate?
    • PH
    • volume of body fluids
    • red blood cell production
    • blood pressure
  7. Removes substances from blood and forms urine
    kidneys
  8. Tubes carry urine from kidneys to bladder
    ureters
  9. Stores urine
    urinary bladder
  10. Carries urine from bladder to outside of body
    urethra
  11. Organ which is reddish-brown and bean shaped
    kidneys
  12. Located on each side of the vertebral column, high on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity
    kidneys
  13. What holds the kidneys in place?
    Renal fascia
  14. What is renal fascia composed of?
    Adipose and connective tissue
  15. In the kidneys, medial depression that leads to a hollow chamber (____)
    renal sinus
  16. The entrance to the renal sinus (blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the ureter pass through it)
    hilum
  17. 2 regions of the kidney
    • inner medulla
    • outer cortex
  18. The renal medulla is composed of masses of tissues called ____
    renal pyramids
  19. The renal cortex covers the renal medulla and dips into it to form ____
    renal columns
  20. What is the main function of the kidneys?
    Regulate the volume, composition, and pH of body fluids
  21. Its main function is the regulate the volume, composition, and pH of body fluids
    kidneys
  22. Removes metabolic wastes from the blood and excretes them by forming urine
    kidneys
  23. The kidneys produce the hormone _____ which helps control RBC formation
    erythropoietin
  24. The kidneys secrete the enzyme ____ to regulate blood pressure
    renin
  25. This enzyme regulates blood pressure
    renin
  26. Activates vitamin D to regulate calcium absorption
    kidneys
  27. From the aorta, supplies each kidney
    renal artery
  28. Removes blood from kidney and joins the inferior vena cava
    renal vein
  29. Functional unit of the kidneys
    nephrons
  30. 2 main parts of a nephron
    • renal corpuscle
    • renal tubule
  31. 2 parts of renal corpuscle
    • glomerulus
    • glomerular capsule
  32. A cluster of blood capillaries in the renal corpuscles
    glomerulus
  33. Leads to the glomerulus
    afferent arteriole
  34. Leads away from the glomerulus
    efferent arteriole
  35. Thin-walled saclike structure around the glomerulus
    glomerular capsule/Bowman's capsule
  36. Leads away from the glomerular capsule
    renal tubule
  37. Within the renal tubule, this is highly coiled/twisted
    proximal convoluted tubule
  38. Descending and ascending limb in the renal tubule
    nephron loop/loop of Henle
  39. Within the renal tubule, tubule which is coiled/twisted but not as much
    distal convoluted tubule
  40. Where the convoluted tubules join together, passes into medulla and empties into minor calyx of renal pelvis
    collecting duct
  41. Where does the collecting duct empty?
    Into minor calyx of renal pelvis
  42. Helps to regulate renal blood pressure
    juxtaglomerular apparatus
  43. The epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule of the juxtaglomerular apparatus are narrow and form the ____
    macula densa
  44. Smooth muscle of the afferent arteriole of the juxtaglomerular apparatus are enlarged and are called what?
    Juxtaglomerular cells
  45. Juxtaglomerular cells produce ____ which causes the efferent arteriole to constrict and raise blood pressure
    renin
  46. Produces renin which causes the efferent arteriole to constrict and raise blood pressure
    juxtaglomerular cells
  47. 2 types of nephrons
    • cortical nephrons
    • juxtamedullary nephrons
  48. Nephrons with short loops
    cortical nephrons
  49. Neprhons with loops which extend deep into renal medulla
    juxtamedullary nephrons
  50. 80% of nephrons are this type
    cortical
  51. 20% of nephrons are this type
    juxtamedullary
  52. Nephrons located in the renal cortex close to outer surface
    cortical
  53. Nephrons located in the renal cortex close to the renal medulla
    juxtamedullary
  54. What type of nephron has an important role in regulating urine concentration (water balance)
    juxtamedullary
  55. Large in diameter with smooth muscle that forms juxtaglomerular cells which release renin (leads to glomerulus)
    afferent arteriole
  56. Smaller diameter causing blood to back up causing a high pressure in the glomerulus (leads away from glomerulus)
    efferent arteriole
  57. Surrounds renal tubule and is where reabsorbed substances enter back into the blood
    peritubular capillary system
  58. 3 basic processes in urine formation
    • glomerular filtration
    • tubular reabsorption
    • tubular secretion
  59. Substances move from glomerulus (blood) into glomerular capsule
    glomerular filtration
  60. Some substances move back into blood in the peritubular capillaries
    tubular reabsorption
  61. Other substances move from peritubular capillaries into the renal tubules
    tubular secretion
  62. Urine excretion =
    glomerular filtration – tubular reabsorption + tubular secretion
  63. Starts when water dissolved substances move out of the glomerular capillaries and into the glomerular capsule
    urine formation
  64. When water dissolved substances move out of the glomerular capillaries and into the glomerular capsule, the fluid is now called ____
    glomerular filtrate (nephric filtrate)
  65. How much glomerular filtrate do we produce daily?
    About 180 liters
  66. How many times is plasma filtered daily?
    60
  67. Main force behind the movements which direct glomerular filtrate is ____
    hydrostatic pressure
  68. Process by which substances are transported from the renal tubule back into the peritubular capillaries
    tubular reabsorption
  69. Reabsorption takes place through the whole tubule (proximal convuluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule) but most occurs where?
    Proximal convoluted tubule
  70. Glucose, amino acids, water, and albumin are reabsorbed where?
    Proximal convoluted tubule
  71. Impermeable to water, so water that makes it here tends to become part of urine
    distal convoluted tubule
  72. Causes the distal convoluted tubule to become more permeable to water if you are dehydrated
    ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
  73. Process where certain substances like potassium and hydrogen ions, penicillin, and histamine are transported from the peritubular capillaries into the renal tubules
    tubular secretion
  74. Composition of urine varies based on what?
    Diet and activity
  75. What is urine composed of?
    • Water (95%)
    • urea (from catabolism of amino acids)
    • uric acid (from nucleic acids)
    • creatine
    • amino acids
    • electrolytes
  76. How is urine eliminated?
    Urine passes from the collecting duct through the minor and major calyces and into the renal pelvis where it enters the ureters
  77. After urine passes from the collecting duct, it passes through ____
    minor and major calyces
  78. After passing through the minor and major calyces, where does urine go?
    Into the renal pelvis, enters ureters
  79. What moves urine through the ureters?
    Peristalsis
  80. After urine passes through the ureters, where does it go?
    Urinary bladder
  81. Distensible organ that stores urine
    urinary bladder
  82. Urine moves through this to the outside of the body
    urethra
  83. Where does a females urethra lead?
    External urethral orifice
  84. Process by which urine is expelled
    micturition
  85. The need to urinate is triggered by ____
    distension
  86. What two muscles are involved in micturition?
    • Detrusor muscles
    • external urethral sphincter
  87. The need to urinate triggers ____ located in the sacral segments of the spinal cord
    micturition reflex center
  88. Where is the micturition reflex center located?
    Sacral segments of the spinal cord

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