Psych 160 Chapter 10 Module 29

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Psych 160 Chapter 10 Module 29
2014-07-23 19:31:10
Motivation and emotion
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  1. Motivation
    the facts that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms
  2. instincts
    inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned
  3. Name the 6 different approaches
    • instinct
    • drive-reduction
    • arousal
    • incentive
    • cognitive
    • hierarchy of needs
  4. What came after instinct theory?
    drive-reduction approach
  5. drive-reduction approaches to motivation
    suggest that a lack of some basic biological requirement such as water produces a drive to obtain that requirement (thirst drive)
  6. drive (concept of drive in terms of motivation)
    motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior to fulfill a need
  7. primary drives
    hunger, thirst, sleep, and sex -biological need
  8. secondary drives
    prior experience and learning bring about needs

    ex. those who have strong need to excel academically
  9. in drive-reduction approaches to motivation, how to satisfy primary drive
    by reducing the need underlying it
  10. homeostasis
    the body's tendency to maintain a steady internal state, underlines primary drives
  11. arousal approaches to motivation
    each person tried to maintain a certain level of stimulation and activity
  12. incentive
    something after basic needs are satisfied
  13. What works in tandem with drive-reduction approach?
    • incentive theory. 
    • .Seek to satisfy our underlying hunger needs (push of drive-reduction theory), drawn to food that appears very appetizing (pull of
    • incentive theory) –works together to motivate behavior
  14. cognitive approaches to motivation
    suggest that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goals (their cognitions)
  15. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is part of hat approaches?
    cognitive approaches to motivation
  16. intrinsic motivation
    causes us to participate in an activity for our own enjoyment rather than for any concrete, tangible reward that it will bring us
  17. extrinsic motivation
    causes us to do something for money, a grade, or some other concrete, tangible reward
  18. Maslow's hierarchy
    • by Abraham Maslow
    • each of them fulfilled the highest levels of motivational needs underlying human behavior
    • -before more sophisticated higher-order needs can be met, certain primary needs must be satisfied
  19. self-fulfillment
    • people realize their highest potentials in their own unique way.
    • -this is achieved after 4 sets of needs are all fulfilled
  20. 2 important measures of the Maslow's hierarchy
    • 1) highlights complexity of human needs
    • 2) emphasizes the idea that until more basic biological needs are met, people will be relatively unconcerned with higher-order needs
  21. self-determination theory
    • by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan
    • -considered human needs in terms of psychological well-being
    • -people have 3 basic needs of competence, autonomy, and relatedness
  22. in self determination theory, what does competence, autonomy, and relatedness mean
    • competence: need to produce desired outcomes
    • autonomy: perception that we have control over our lives 
    • relatedness: need to be involved in close, warm relationships with others 

    all 3 are innate, universal across cultures, and essential