Exam 4 - Communication Theory

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  1. Social Learning Theory
    theory created by Albert Bandura, to explain why we imitate media
  2. Attention
    [first step in the social learning process] before one can learn, one must pay attention
  3. Retention
    [second step in the social learning process] remembering the model’s behavior
  4. Motivation
    [third step in the social learning process] rewards for imitating the observed behavior
  5. Simple
    a characteristic that contributes to TV keeping our attention. This is a clear-cut actions and decisions are easy to see and understand
  6. Prevalent
    a characteristic that contributes to TV keeping our attention. This is any edits occur in one minute, especially violence
  7. Positive
    a characteristic that contributes to TV keeping our attention. This is many characters are attractive in some way
  8. Useful
    a characteristic that contributes to TV keeping our attention. This means is rewarding
  9. Distinctive
    a characteristic that contributes to TV keeping our attention. This is not in our mundane everyday lives
  10. Prosocial
    positive characteristics portrayed on tv
  11. DRAMA
    • A - Liking of a character
    •  B - Caring about the character based on liking
    •  C - Emotional reaction to outcome
  12. Approbation
    feelings that are positive to the character
  13. Disapprobation
    feeling that are negative to the character
  14. concordant affect
    our feelings agree with the character’s regrading the outcome
  15. empathy
    hoping for positive, fearing for negative outcomes
  16. counter-empathy
    hoping for negative fearing positive outcomes
  17. protagonist
    the leading character
  18. antagonist
    a person who is opposed to, struggles against, or competes with another; adversary.
  19. moral judgement
    for maximum enjoyment, for a villain,  “punishment must fit the crime"
  20. discordant affect
    our feelings disagree with the character’s regrading the outcome
  21. Anti-hero
    Redeeming quality despite the past immoral behavior
  22. Tragic flaw
    a variation on the “good guy” theme that injects variety into the formula for drama
  23. Moral Ambiguity
    character does some good acts and somebody acts
  24. Suspense
    “A hero in peril”
  25. Excitation-Transfer Theory
    1st event first leads to intense arousal, then the 2nd event borrow from it, making it seem just as intense.
  26. Parasocial interaction
    “relationship” that exist between the television viewers and remote media communicators
  27. Parasocial relationship
    the viewers believe that they know and understand the media personality in the same way as their “real” friends
  28. The prefix “para”
  29. A sense of belonging
    we feel like belong on the newscast team
  30. A sense of involvement
    we feel a connection with media personalities.
  31. Perceived similarity
    the media personality is similar to other people in their circle
  32. Perceived “closeness”
    media personality are regarded as “closer” than acquaintances
  33. Functional alternative to interpersonal communication
    parasocial interaction can substitute interpersonal in a functional way
  34. Attraction
    parasocial relationships only happen when the receiver is attracted to the media persona
  35. Attitude similarity
    similarity perceived by the receiver
  36. Qualities of the media personality (specify some examples of the qualities that might be involved that the reading material mentions)
    attitude, background, moral values, appearance
  37. Parasocial interaction scale (PSI)
    is a 20 item measure designed to asses an individual’s feelings of friendship, involvement, and personal concern for a media personally
  38. “Breaking the fourth wall”
    when a person steps out of character and addresses the audience
  39. Increased exposure in relation to liking and attraction
    increased exposure to television was not influential to a media personality
  40. CMC
    Computer-Mediated communication
  41. Social presence theory
    a way to think about what users don’t experience., users no longer feel that anyone is there
  42. Cues
    they are filtered out, lack of non-verbal cues during relationship development
  43. Impression formation
    the composite mental image one person forms of another; a key part in any relationship development
  44. Affinity
    SIP claims that people can creatively adapt (and in fact, they do) their communication to connect across cue-limited media, such as text messaging
  45. Anticipated future interaction
    one of the aspects of CMC experience that motivates users, Walther says.
  46. Chronemics
    how we use time.  This links nicely with other considerations about CMC such as asynchronous communication.
  47. Hyperpersonal perspective
    this involves how “senders select, receivers magnify, channels promote, and feedback increases enhanced and selective communication behaviors in CMC”
  48. Selective self-presentation
    an online positive portrayal without fear of contradiction which enables people to create an overwhelmingly favorable impression. I think of a propaganda device that could relate to this called “stacking the deck.”
  49. SIDE (social identity-deindividuation)
    A theory that suggests CMC users overestimate their similarity with others they meet in online interest groups
  50. Asynchronous channel (& Asynchronous communication)
    a non simultaneous medium of communication that each individual can use when he or she desires
  51. Self-fulfilling prophecy
    The tendency for a person’s expectation of others to evoke a response from them that confirms what was originally anticipated
  52. Warranting value
    reason to believe that information is accurate, typically because the target of the information cannot manipulate it
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Exam 4 - Communication Theory
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