Cell Phys Chapter 6

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Cell Phys Chapter 6
2014-07-30 10:04:59
Cell Phys
Cell Phys Chapter 6 - Eukaryotic Genome
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  1. Organization of DNA from smallest to largest
    • Nucleotides
    • Motifs
    • Genes
    • Chromosomes
    • Nucleus
    • Cell
  2. How many genes encoded by DNA
  3. How many genes in mitochondria
  4. All genes in mitochondria are essential for
    Mitochondrial function
  5. Mitochondrial genes origin
    Mother only
  6. DNA building block made of how many bases?
  7. Four building block bases of DNA
    • 2 purines
    •     Adenine 
    •     Guanine
    • 2 pyrimidines
    •     Cytosine
    •     Thymine 
    • Also backbone of deoxiribose (5 carbon sugar)
  8. Adenine bonds to
  9. Guanine bonds to
  10. Bases are
  11. Both DNA and RNA
    Guanine and adenine
  12. Used for DNA/ Used for RNA
    Thymine and cytosine/Uracil and Cytosine
  13. Nucleoside lacks
  14. Phosphate use in DNA
    Chains together carbon (nucleosides become nucleotides)
  15. Phosphate/sugar backbone is called
    Phosphodiester backbone
  16. Purines found in the body but NOT in DNA
    • Xanthine
    • Hypoxanthine
  17. Methylization of xanthine creates
    Caffein naturally in the body
  18. Difference between ribose and deoxyribose (RNA and DNA)
    One oxygen molecule (DNA is missing the oxygen)
  19. Double stranded DNA+small basic proteins (histones) + small amount of nonhistone proteins
    Chromatin complex
  20. Arginine and lysine-rich basic proteins
    Histones (part of composition of chromatin complex)
  21. Positive charge on AA helps bind histones to
    Negative charge on DNA sugar phosphate
  22. Core of 8 histones with DNA wrapped around
  23. Nucleosomes wind up to form
    Chromatin strand
  24. Chromatin strand winds tight to form
    Chromasomes during mitosis or miosis
  25. Number of chromosome copies in a cell
  26. Most cells in the body are
    Diploid, exception being germ cells (sperm and egg, haploid cells)
  27. Diploid cells have copies from
    Mom and dad (one of each)
  28. Haploid gene has how many base pairs
    3 billion
  29. Haploid genome has how many chromosomes?
    23 (22 somatic, 1 sex)
  30. Haploid genome has enough DNA to code for
    1.5 million genes, really only codes for 21,000 genes
  31. DNA that doesn't code for any of our 21,000 genes is
    "Junk." Doesn't appear to code for anything to be produced. May be important in regulation of production.
  32. Total number of protien species produced by the body is  called
  33. Many protein species are regulated by
  34. Small non-coding RNA that control translation and post-translational changes
    Micro RNA (miRNA)
  35. Deregulation of miRNA can lead to
    Diabetes, cancer, schizophrenia, depresion, etc.
  36. Two parts of eukaryotic DNA
    • Unique DNA sequences (genes)
    • Repeat sequences ("junk")
  37. Trinucleotide (microsatellite) repeats and disease - repeat sequences repeated too many times cause
    Disease! e.g. - Huntingtons, Kennedy, Fragile X, etc.
  38. Dispersed repetitive sequences are found where?
    Found mingled around coding genes (unique DNA sequences)
  39. Endonucleases are
    Non-specific DNA "clippers," long interspersed elements - 7000 bp
  40. Reverse transcriptase does what?
    Codes RNA, turns it back into cDNA
  41. Lines v sines
    • Lines - long interspersed elements (7000 bp)
    • Sines - Short interspersed elements (90-500 bp) 
    •  bp=base pairs
    • Both are dispersed repetitive sequences
  42. Where are genes located?
    Located in chromosomes and in mitochondria
  43. Genes contain two regions -
    • Promoter region
    • Control region
  44. How much of a gene sequence is required for generating a product?
    The entire sequence is required for the product to be produced
  45. What is epigenetics?
    Stable changes to a gene structure, without changing the DNA sequence
  46. If there is no change in gene structure, how do epigenetics work?
    Changes in gene expression
  47. Epigenetics are controlled by
    • **Methylation of cytosines
    • Tissue-specific chromatin alterations
  48. What do DNA strands wrap around for storage?
    Proteins called Histones (spools for DNA to wrap around)
  49. Acetylation of lysine does what to DNA-histone interaction?
    Weakens the interaction, easier for transcription factors to access the DNA strand
  50. Histone deacetylase does what to DNA-histone interaction?
    Tightens it, makes it more difficult for transcription factors to access DNA strand
  51. Two ways to describe compaction of DNA in chromatin
    • Euchromatin - loosely packed, transcriptionally active
    • Heterochromatin - densely packed regions, genetcally inactive
  52. Unhealthy epigenetic alterations
    • Excess oxidation and free radicals
    • Tobacco
    • Excess alcohol
    • Pychological stress (hormones)
    • Shiftwork
    • Chronic inflammation
  53. Healthy epigenetic alterations
    • Polyunsaturated fats
    • Fruits and veggies (polyphenols)
    • Folate and vitamin B12
    • Selenium
  54. Epigenetic changes in fetus: Depression causes
    • Exposure of hypothalmlic-pituitary adrenal axis with higher levels of corticotrophin releasing hormone
    • Babies born with less developed prefrontal cortex
  55. Epigenetic changes in fetus:diabetes causes
    • Hyperinsulinemia in the fetus, increase oxygen consumption and metabolism
    • Causes chronic intraunterine tissue hypoxia