Chapter 21 Water, Electrolyte, and acid-base balance

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ginarjones
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279548
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Chapter 21 Water, Electrolyte, and acid-base balance
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2014-07-24 17:35:04
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chapter21 water electrolyte acid base balance p2 davis icc
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A&P 2
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Chapter 21 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance A&P 2 ICC:Davis
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  1. What do homeostatic mechanisms insure about water and electrolytes?
    • Water in = water out
    • Electrolytes gained = electrolytes lost
  2. What are water and electrolyte balance controlled by?
    Homeostatic mechanisms
  3. How much water is the male body made up of on average?
    63%
  4. How much water is the female body made up of on average?
    52%
  5. 63% of body water is found here
    intracellular fluid compartment (enclosed by cell membranes)
  6. 37% of body water is found here
    extracellular fluid compartment (outside of cells)
  7. Where is the fluid outside of cells found in the body?
    • Interstitial fluid (largest amount)
    • plasma
    • lymph
    • transcellular fluid
  8. Where is the largest amount of fluid found in the body outside of cell membranes?
    Interstitial fluid
  9. Cerebrospinal, aqueous & vitreous humor of eye, synovial fluid, serous fluids, and secretion of exocrine glands are forms of what?
    Transcellular fluid
  10. What controls movement between intracellular fluid compartments and extracellular fluid compartments?
    • Hydrostatic pressure
    • osmotic pressure
  11. Fluid leaving plasma is an example of what type of pressure?
    Hydrostatic
  12. Fluid entering plasma is an example of what type of pressure?
    Osmotic
  13. Fluid entering lymph vessels is an example of what type of pressure?
    Osmotic
  14. Fluid moving in and out of cells is an example of what type of pressure?
    Osmotic
  15. Where does your intake of water come from?
    • 60% drinking water or liquids
    • 30% moist food
    • 10% by product of metabolism
  16. Water intake is regulated by what?
    Thirst
  17. Water intake is regulated by thirst which involves what?
    • Osmotic pressure
    • thirst center of hypothalamus
  18. If the body loses 1-2% of its water, what happens?
    • Osmotic pressure in extracellular fluid increases
    • osmoreceptors in thirst center cause reduction in saliva
    • stomach distends which inhibits thirst center
    • water absorbed in tissue and extracellular fluid decreases
  19. When osmoreceptors in the thirst center are stimulated, what does it cause?
    Reduction in saliva
  20. When drinking fluids causes the stomach to distend, it ____ the thirst center
    inhibits
  21. What are the sources of water output from the body?
    • Urine:60%
    • feces:6%
    • sweat 6%
    • diffusion through skin and evaporation from lungs 28%
  22. How much water is removed from our bodies as urine?
    60%
  23. How much water is removed from our bodies as feces?
    6%
  24. How much water is removed from our bodies as sweat?
    6%
  25. How much water is removed from our bodies by diffusion through the skin and evaporation from the lungs?
    28%
  26. What regulates water output in the body?
    • Renal tubes
    • ADH from hypothalamus
  27. ADH, which regulates water output, comes from where?
    Hypothalamus
  28. What happens when you are dehydrated?
    • Blood plasma thickens
    • osmoreceptors in hypothalamus shrink = ADH secretion
    • ADH increases permeability of renal tubule = more water reabsorbed
    • (less urine is produced)
  29. What happens when you have too much water in your body?
    • Blood plasma thins
    • osmoreceptors swell
    • ADH is inhibited = less water reabsorption
    • (more urine is produced)
  30. When water output exceeds intake
    dehydration
  31. Characterized by the presence of hypotonic extracellular fluid
    water intoxication
  32. Caused by taking in pure water when dehydrated
    water intoxication
  33. Abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid within interstitial spaces (decrease in plasma proteins)
    edema
  34. Obtained primarily in foods, also in beverages and by-products of metabolism
    electrolytes
  35. Regulated by hunger and thirst (salt craving)
    electrolytes
  36. Lost mainly through urine, also perspiration and feces
    electrolytes
  37. Primarily, where do we obtain most of our electrolytes?
    Foods
  38. Other than foods, where do we obtain electrolytes?
    Beverages and by-products of metabolism
  39. What regulates electrolyte intake?
    Hunger and thirst
  40. How are electrolytes mainly lost?
    Urine (also perspiration and feces)
  41. Why are electrolytes important?
    • Control nerve impulses
    • muscle contraction
    • cell permeability
    • blood clotting
  42. 90% of positive ions in extracellular fluid
    sodium (Na)
  43. Where is sodium (Na) regulated?
    • Kidneys
    • aldosterone from adrenal cortex
  44. Electrolyte regulated by the kidneys and aldosterone from the adrenal cortex
    sodium (Na)
  45. Causes increases in sodium reabsorption in nephron tubule and secretion of potassium
    aldosterone
  46. Most important electrolytes
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Calcium
  47. Helps you keep sodium and get rid of potassium
    aldosterone
  48. What regulates calcium?
    Parathyroid
  49. Found in both extracellular fluid and interstitial fluid
    calcium
  50. What happens if calcium levels drop in extracellular fluid?
    Parathyroid hormone causes calcium to leave bone and enter extracellular fluid (makes bones more fragile)
  51. Electrolyte regulated by the parathyroid
    calcium
  52. If calcium levels in extracellular fluid drop, what hormone causes calcium to leave bone and enter ECF?
    Parathyroid hormone
  53. Electrolytes that release H+ ions
    acids
  54. Electrolytes that combine with H+ ions
    bases
  55. Most hydrogen ions come from what?
    Metabolic processes
  56. Aerobic respiration of glucose
    CO2 forms carbonic acid which ionizes to release H+
  57. When CO2 forms carbonic acid which ionizes to release H+
    Aerobic respiration of glucose
  58. Anaerobic respiration of glucose
    lactic acid forms which adds H+
  59. When lactic acid forms, adding H+
    anaerobic respiration of glucose
  60. Respiration of glucose with oxygen
    aerobic
  61. Respiration of glucose without oxygen
    anaerobic
  62. Respiration of glucose which forms carbonic acid
    aerobic
  63. Respiration of glucose which forms lactic acid
    anaerobic
  64. Respiration of glucose that gets rid of hydrogen
    aerobic
  65. Respiration of glucose that adds hydrogen
    anaerobic
  66. Produces acidic ketone bodies which release H+ (hydrogen)
    incomplete oxidation of fatty acids
  67. Incomplete oxidation of fatty acids produces what?
    Acidic ketone bodies
  68. What does incomplete oxidation of fatty acids release?
    Hydrogen
  69. Oxidation of amino acids containing sulfur is a process which yields what?
    Sulfuric acid/releases hydrogen
  70. This process yields sulfuric acid which releases hydrogen
    Oxidation of amino acids containing sulfur
  71. Hydrolysis of phosphoproteins and nucleoproteins contain phosphorus which produces what?
    Phosphoric acid / ionizes to release hydrogen
  72. Chemicals that combine with strong acids/bases to make weaker ones
    buffers
  73. The first line of defense in hydrogen concentration regulation, which works rapidly
    acid-base buffer systems
  74. Part of the bicarbonate buffer system which converts a strong acid into a weak one (carbonic acid)
    bicarbonate
  75. Part of the bicarbonate buffer system which converts a strong base into a weak base
    carbonic acid
  76. Helps regulate pH in kidneys
    phosphate buffer system
  77. The weak base in the phosphate buffer system
    sodium monohydrogen phosphate
  78. The weak acid in the phosphate buffer system
    sodium dihydrogen phosphate
  79. Buffer system of amino acids with a carboxyl group (COOH) and amine group (NH2)
    protein buffer system
  80. Breaks down in the protein buffer system if the environment is basic
    carboxyl group (COOH)
  81. Breaks down in the protein buffer system if the environment is acidic
    amine group (NH2)
  82. Regulates hydrogen concentration by controlling the rate and depth of breathing
    respiratory buffer system
  83. Respiratory buffer system regulates hydrogen concentration by controlling what?
    Rate and depth of breathing
  84. What does the respiratory buffer system do if CO2 is high?
    • cells release CO2
    • CO2 combines to form carbonic acid
    • body pH drops
    • respiratory center stimulates increase in breathing which lowers CO2/carbonic acid
  85. Tubules regulate body pH by absorption or secretion of hydrogen
    Kidneys/renal excretion
  86. What does the kidney/renal excretion buffer system do?
    Regulates body pH by absorption or secretion of hydrogen
  87. How long does kidney/renal excretion take?
    1-3 days

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