Structure and Function of Bones 1

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Structure and Function of Bones 1
2014-07-25 15:29:39
Structure Function Bones

Structure and Function of Bones
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  1. 4 types of bones
    • long
    • short
    • flat
    • irregular
  2. long bones
    • longer than they are wide and are slightly curved for strength
    • ex: femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, phalanges (usually in the extremities)
  3. short bones
    • cube-shaped and are nearly equal in length and width
    • ex: carpal, tarsal
  4. flat bones
    • broad and thing
    • cover and protect soft body parts
    • ex: cranial bones, sternum, ribs
  5. irregular bones
    • have varied shapes and sizes and are commonly clustered
    • ex: vertebrae, certain bones of the ears and face
  6. diaphysis
    composed of several tissue layers
  7. diaphysis tissue layers
    • periosteum
    • compact bone
    • medullary cavity
  8. periosteum
    • thin fibrous outer membrane
    • contains blood vessels to supply nutrients and nerves to signal pain
  9. compact bone
    thick, dense outer layer
  10. purposes of compact bone
    • serves as a place of attachment for muscles
    • provides protection
    • gives durable strength to the bone
  11. medullary cavity
    inner layer
  12. epiphysis
    • distal epiphysis, proximal epiphysis
    • bulbous shape to provide space for muscle and ligament attachments near the joints
  13. two kinds of bone
    • compact (dense)
    • spongy (cancellous)
  14. spongy (cancellous) bone
    porous, highly vascular inner portion