Lines running east and west parallel to the equator. used to measure angular distance north or south of the equator.
Longitude
Meridians of longitude are drawn from the pole at right angles to the equator.
Prime Meridian
Used as the zero degree line, passes through Greenwich, England. From this line, measurements are made in degrees both easterly and westerly up to 180 degrees.
True North
Where Longitudinal meridians converge.
Magnetic North
Where the needle of a compass points
Magnetic Variation
The angular difference between true north and magnetic north
Agonic Line
Where true north and magnetic north are the same
Magnetic Course
The conversion made by either adding or subtracting the magnetic variation from the True Course.
Time
Measured in relation to the rotation of the earth. The days is defined as the time required for the Earth to make one complete revolution of 360 degrees.
Day light savings time
During the summer, subtract 1 hour.
Magnetic Deviation
Compass is affected by influences within the aircraft such as electrical circuits, radios and metal. This deflection is known as deviation. and it must be applied to convert a magnetic course to a compass course.
Compass course
True course + or - Variation + or - deviation = Compass course.
VFR Cruising Altitudes
Based on magnetic course of the aircraft.
3000 feet AGL or greater
0-179 = odd thousands plus 500
180-359 = even thousands plus 500
(cowboys go west to get even)
Objective 109.2 Define Dead Reckoning
Method used to determining position with a heading indicator and calculations based on speed, elapsed time and wind effect from known position.
109.3 Define Pilotage
Pilotage is the use of visible landmarks to maintain a desired course, and is the basic form of navigation for a beginning pilot under VFR.