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What are the four P's?
Occurred in three waves
1. Age of Discovery (1450 - 1850) - Globalization was shaped by European expansion and conquest
2. 1850 - 1960. Evidenced a major expansion in the spread and entrenchment of European environment
3. Contemporary Globalization (1960 - today) is defined by technological/communication revolution, so that today the microchip and the satellite are icons of globalized order
Driven by three engines
Technics - technological change and social organization; central to any account of globalization since it is a truism that without modern communications infrastructures a global system or worldwide economy would not be possible
Economics - markets and capital; is as crucial as technology. Capitalism's insatiable requirement for new markets and profits lead to inevitability to the globalization of the economic activity
Politics - power, interests, institutions; short hand for ideas, interests, and power. If technology provides the physical infrastructure of globalization, politics provides its normative infrastructure in which governments have been critical actors in nurturing the process of globalization
Briefly describe Patterns
It is evident in all sectors
Describe Patterns in the Economic sector
Patterns of worldwide trade, finance, and production are creating global markets, in the process a single global capitalist economy or global informational capitalism
Describe Patterns in the Military sector
The global arms trade, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the growth of transnational terrorism, and the growing significance of transnational military corporations point to the existence of global military order
Describe Patterns in the Legal sector
The expansion of transnational and international law from trade to human rights alongside the creation of new world legal institutions, which is indicative of an emerging global legal order
Describe Patterns in the Ecological sector
A shared ecology involves shared environmental problems, from global warming to species protection
Describe Patterns in the Cultural sector
Involves complex mix of homogenization and increased heterogeneity given the global diffusion of popular culture, global media corporations, etc..., simultaneously with the reassertion of nationalism, ethnicity, and difference
Describe Patterns in the Social sector
Shifting patterns of migration from South to North to East to West have turned migration into a major global issue
Describe and define Philosophy
Entails the reality of people being interconnected: People's economic, political, and cultural expectations are converging. The world is or may be more integrated than it had ever been before
What is a postwar juncture?
Strategic moments that provide opportunities for leading states to put forward new rules and principles of international relations and by doing so reshape international order.
What are the main features of the postwar juncture of 1945?
US emerged as a super power
After WWII emerged as the leading military power and possessed nearly half of the world's economic production leadership in advanced technology, dominant military, surplus of food and petroleum
Created extensive use of binding institutions
Manifested fully in security commitments and restraints established
Cold War bipolarity between US and Soviet Union
What are the main features of the postwar juncture of 1989?
End of the Cold War
US and Western democracies showed they could establish institutionalized restrain in great power and superpower relations
NATO expansion, NAFTA, APEC
What are the main features of the postwar juncture of September 11th?
US attempted to transform the Middle East by building an order based on constitutional and democratic institutions
High risks of transnational terrorism explosions
Terrorism is becoming the weapon of the weak, US and allies are becoming challenged in containing transnational terrorism
What are the main features of the postwar juncture of 2008?
International order has been underlined via intergovernmental institutions and an intensive/extensive global economy of which have facilitated "complex interdependence" and restrained the exercise of hard power
Can transform the international system
On one end of the extreme opposite of skeptics
Believe capitalism makes the world flat
Believe capitalism and technology are changing globalization
Power of national governments are declining or eroding
On the other extreme opposite of hyperglobalists
Believe the rich get richer but the poor are improving
Believe there are benefits from globalization because it has happened before ad nothing has changed
There is an increased marginalization of South and Internationalization depends on state acquiescence and support
Power of national governments are reinforced or enhanced
In the middle of hyperglobalists and skeptics
Believe that developing countries can catch up to the rich ones and globalization is transforming state power and world politics
Power of national governments are reconstituted or restructured
Focuses on firms and corporations
There is a maximization of global welfare
Economics should determine politics
There is a dynamic equilibrium
Argues that human beings are perfectible, and that democracy is necessary for that perfectibility to develop
Focuses on class
There is a maximization of class interests
Economic does determine politics
There is a tendency toward disequilibrium
Argues that world politics takes place within a world capitalist economy in which the most important actors are not states but classes
Focuses on state
There is a maximization of national interest
Politics determines economics
There are shifts in the distribution of power
Describe NIE (Natural, Inevitable, and Evolutionary) Perspective
Ecological interpretations - there is social Darwinism and environmental determinism
Economic interpretations - Neoclassical economics which are choices individuals make. They understand the market and make personal choices. They personally determine what they need to do and understand the economic market
SPG (Socially and Politically Generated) perspective
Ecological interpretations - there is political ecology, it says that through politics a country can overcome environmental restraints
Economic interpretation - there is a Marxian political economy which means you are likely to be a winner if you parents are rich and vice versa with the poor
Who where the main growth champions from the 1950s to 2005 and what explained their growth?
Japan, South Korea and China
Economic growth based on development of industrial capabilities rather than specializing on comparative advantages
Low productivity to high productivity; poor countries become richer by producing what the rich do
What has been shown to be correlated with high economic growth?
Net exporters of capital
What limits growth is not access to finance but the low profitability in tradables
What are the prospects for developing countries in the current financial slowdown?
Need to reform and invest so that there is an environment conducive to structural transformation in the developing world
Explain how the types of commodities matter in terms of PRODY values
Some commodities associated with a higher productivity than others
The PRODY value measures the value of a commodity
What type of countries will perform better in terms of EXPY values? What does it say about comparative advantage?
Countries that latch onto higher productivity goods (South Korea, Hong, Kong, Mexico and China)
Comparative advantage can only go so far
What are two key determinants of EXPY?
Human capital and the size of labor force
What are the six main functions used in GPCI?
- Research and Development
- Cultural Interaction
- Ecology and Natural Environment
What are the five global actors used in the GPCI?
What are the top five cities in the GPCI?
- New York
In the non financial corporation what two cities have a strong head quarter affiliate network of which are not on the top five cities on the GPCI?
Madrid and Seoul
In financial corporation network what are the three major financial centers?
What are the top five global emerging cities on the Top 50 EGOC?
- Cebu City
- Ho Chi Minh City
What are the top five offshore nations according to Top 50 EGOC?
What country tops the next 5 offshore nations according to the Top 50 EGOC?
What country has the most cities in the Top 8 Global Sourcing cities?
South Asia (India)
How would you describe Washington D.C. regarding its political economic role?
High global political influence but low global economic influence.
Important because Washington's political policies affect the world
Is Houston on any global city indexes?
Why does the City of Houston think it should be on the list?
- Economics (NASA, med center)
- Diversity - cultural - attracts many people around the world, interconnected
Describe the principal characteristics of non polarity?
A world dominated by dozens of actors, both state and nonstate, possessing and exercising various kinds of power which affect world politics
What structure is most and least stable?
- Bipolar most
- Nonpolar least
Explain why US power and influence are less and less linked in an era of nonpolarity
Largest single aggregation of power
Emerging centers of power, terrorist attacks, foreign policy, rising power of china and russia
Describe two fundamental ways in which globalization will continue to reinforce nonpolarity
Many cross border flows outside control of government, so that globalization dilutes the influence of major powers
Same flows strengthen capacities of nonstate actors such as exporters, terrorists, rogue states, and fortune 500 firms
Explain the threats and vulnerabilities of nonpolarity
Rogue states, terrorist groups, energy producers reducing output, central bank can change strength of dollar
How nonpolarity complicates diplomacy
Involves more actors
Lacks more predictable fixed structures
Alliances lose importance
Relationships more selective and situational
In what ways can US reduce chances that a nonpolar world will become a cauldron of instability
Get its own house in order
Has capacity to improve quality of international system
2 ways to get ahead in today's global markets
Competitive in either knowledge economy
Why has globalization been disappointing for countries in the middle
They have not found their niche in world markets
Unable to compete in high value added markets dominated by wealthy economies
Who are middle income countries and how have they been squeezed by todays global markets?
Latin America, Eastern Europe, Middle East
- Rich get richer, poor cant, middle neither
- Cant upgrade and educate
Is there a similar process in which middle class within a country squeezed
- Educating is the problem
- Class job manu is losing to overseas manu
What explain the success of Asian tigers (ie, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan)?
Did not fully open up to free trade, waited till the could compete
Challenges for middle to climb value chain and compete in the global knowledge economy in EU and LA
Educational reforms geared to large pool of skilled and creative labor
Which of the largest exporters will come out on top of the global slowdown?
Which region of the world is most optimistic about the economic conditions getting better?
Is Latin America in general doing better (GDP rate) in 2010 than in 2009?
How would you describe China’s and Africa’s friends with benefits relations?
Imports and exports
Which country has the highest percent of its citizen stating that US abuses its power to make us do what the US wants?
Which country has the highest percent of its citizen stating that US more often treats us fairly?
Which country has the highest percent of its citizen having a mainly negative view of US role in the world?
Which country has the highest percent of its citizen having a mainly positive view of US role in the world?
What do developing countries gain by raising their energy
productivity? They could slow the growth of their energy demand by more than
half over the next 12 years – to 1.4 percent a year, from 3.4. Save money.
• Why is it
important for policy makers and businesses in developing world to boost energy
productivity (the output they achieve from the energy they consume) now?
Because of the present weakening economic environment and falling oil prices. That is, every building or industrial plant
constructed without optimal energy efficiency represents a lost opportunity to
lock in lower energy consumption for decades. Save and reduce energy demand.
- • What percent do developing regions
- represent regarding the positive-return opportunities to reduce global energy
- demand? 65 percent
- • What are some key factors that
- holding developing countries regarding energy efficiency? And what should government do to promote
- energy efficiency?
- o At present, a range of market
- failures and information barriers discourage developing countries from
- increasing their energy productivity, even with high energy prices. (p.3)
- o First, governments must reduce
- energy subsidies, as they tend to lower energy productivity.
- o Protecting the poor from the stress
- of high energy prices is a legitimate goal. But there are other ways to achieve
- this and similar welfare goals at a lower cost.
- o Governments should also provide
- incentives for utilities to improve energy efficiency and encourage their
- customers to do the same.
- ****Who is China’s
principal supplier of oil? (p.13) And in what ways does this supplier
benefit from China?
east; they benefit in that they are investing in developing china’s
infrastructures; middle east benefits also because of china’s exports;
middle east gets a way to access the growing Asian market.
- What region
the best option to reduce its dependence on the Gulf and help avoid the
“Malacca dilemma”? (p.30) Central
Asian/Caspian countries. China is preventing itself to be reliable on only
one source and creating a pipeline through this country prevents china to
use the sea route which is heavily controlled by the US.
And in which ways do this region benefits from China?
(p.36) They have low leverage against Russia. They
are forced to sell oil to Russia at a cheaper rate but due to China’s investment
in the pipeline through these countries, now they will have more leverage
Which factor is the most important in
affecting short-term demand for both oil and energy? GDP
Which factor is the most important in
affecting long-term demand for both oil and energy? Higher fuel
efficiency standards. Electric
vehicles will be by 2020.
the legitimizing identity. It is constructed by institutions in general and by
the nation-state in particular.
the resistance-based identity. It is formed when groups who feel they are
pushed to the fringes of society in cultural, political, or social terms react
by constructing an identity that allows them to resist assimilation by the
system that subordinates them. They do this by drawing on history and self
the project-based identity. It is based on self identification, drawing upon
cultural, historical, and geographic components for this purpose. Such a
project may be of a national or a generic nature.
questions arise from the above three identities? The question becomes whether
resistance-based identities lead to extremism? Whether project-based identities
should supplant resistance identities? And what type of nation-state identity
can better confront resistance-based identities and project-based identities?