a methylated guanine nucleotide added to the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNA. The cap is necessary to initiate translation of the mRNA.
the band of the sarcomere that extends the full length of the think filament.
Absolute refractory period
a period of time following an action potential during which no additional action potential can be evoked regardless of the level of stimulation
the 3 glands of the male reproductive system that produce semen:
seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands
GI accessory organs
liver, gallbladder, pancreas, salivary glands
the first substrate in the Krebs cycle, produced primarily from the oxidation of pyruvate by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
cells that make up exocrine glands, and that secrete their products into ducts
a region at the head of a sperm cell that contains digestive enzymes which, when released during the acrosome reaction, can facilitate penetration of the corona radiata of the oocyte and fertilization
a contractile protein. In skeletal and cardiac muscle, it polymerizes to form the thin filaments
On of the four aromatic bases found in DNA and RNA. It is a purine and pairs with thymine (DNA) and uracil (RNA)
releases epinephrine and norepinephrine
the small artery that carries blood toward the capillaries of the glomerulus
produced by the liver to help maintain blood osmotic pressure
amino acid acceptor site
the 3' end of a tRNA molecule that binds an amino acid
a tRNA with an amino acid attached; made by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
an enzyme that digests starch into disaccharides. Secreted by salivary glands and pancreas
male sex hormones
aka "vasopressin", is produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary. Targets the kidney tubules to increase their permeability to water and thus increase water retention
Aminoacyl-tRNA site; the site on a ribosome where a new amino acid is added to a growing peptide
a bacterium that cannot survive on minimal medium(glucose alone), because they cannot synthesize a molecule needed to live
rod-like shaped bacteria
the transfer of DNA or proteins from an electrophoresis gel to a nitrocellulose filter
the tendency of certain factors to stabilize hemoglobin in the tense conformation, thus reducing its affinity for oxygen and enhancing the release of oxygen to the tissues
the region of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus. It collects the plasma that is filtered from the capillaries in the glomerulus.
A cytoplasmic Ca2+ binding protein, important in smooth muscle cells
outer protein coat of a virus
an enzyme in eruthrocytes that catalyzes the conversion of CO2 and H2O into carbonic acid
pepsinogen-secreting cells found at the bottom of the gastric glands of the stomach
a hormone secreted by the small intestine in response to the presence of fats. It promotes the release of bile from the gallbladder and pancreatic juices from the pancreas
a round shaped bacteria
an inorganic molecule that associates non-covalently with an enzyme, and that is required for the proper functioning of the enzyme
a type of substrate binding to a multi-active site enzyme, in which the binding of one substrate molecule facilitates the binding of subsequent substrate molecules
a general cell junction, used primarily for adhesion
the enzyme that replicates DNA. Eukaryotes have a single version and Prokayotes have 3
ultimately forms external structures such as skin, hair, nails, inner lining of mouth and anus, and the nervous sytem
the small artery that carries blood away from the capillaries of the glomerulus
a biochemical technique that utilizes antigen-antibody interactions to determine the presence of either antigens of specific immunoglobulins in a sample
ultimately forms internal structures, such as the inner lining of the GI tract and some glandular organs
a hormone secreted by the small intestine in response to the presence of food.
a duodenal enzyme that activates trypsinogen to trypsin
the specific site on an antigenic molecule that binds to a T-cell receptor or to an antibody
DNA that is loosely packed around histones. DNA is more accessible to enzymes and can be activated if needed
an organism that will use oxygen to produce energy if it is available, and that can ferment if it is not
a blood protein essential to blood clotting
a hormone released by the G cells of the stomach in the presence of food. Promotes muscular activity of the stomach as well as secretion of hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen, and mucus
a prokaryotic enzyme used to twist the single circular chromosome of prokaryotes upon itself to form supercoils.
Human chorionic gonadotropin
a hormone secreted by the trophoblast cells of a blastocyst that prolongs the life of the corpus luteum, and thus increases the duration and amount of progesterone. This helps to maintain the uterine lining.
enzyme that unwinds the double helix of DNA and separates the DNA strands in preparation of replication
enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to form glucose-6-phosphate in the first step of glycolysis
globular proteins that assist in DNA packaging in eukaryotes
the region at the center of an A band of a sarcomere that is made up of myosin only. Gets shorter with muscle contraction
the region of a sarcomere made up only of the thin filaments. Alternate with A bands to give striation
a chemical secreted by a T cell that stimulates activation and proliferation of other immune system cells
an enzyme that transfers a phosphoryl group from ATP to other compounds
The substrate concentration required to reach 1/2 Vmax
acetyl-CoA is combined with oxaloacetate to form citric acid. The citric acid is then decarboxylated twice and isomerized to recreate oxaloacetate
Law of segregation
states that two alleles of a given gene will be separated from one another during gamete formation
an enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment. Used during DNA replication
an enzyme that lyses bacteria by creating holes in their cell walls
the cells of the distal tubule at the juxtaglomerular apparatus
ultimately forms "middle" structures such as bones, muscles, blood vessels, heart, kidneys,....
small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand
an enzyme that removes a phosphoryl group from a compound
enzyme used in third step of glycolysis (main regulatory step). PFK is feeback-inhibited by ATP
proximal convoluted tubule
site of most reabsorption in nephron; all filtered nutrients as well as most filtered water is reabsorbed here
site of a ribosome where the growing peptide is found during translation
enzyme secreted by juxtaglomerular cells when BP decreases; Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
a rise in blod pH due to hyperventilation and a resulting decrease in CO2
an organism that feeds of dead plants and animals
hormone secreted by the small intestine in response to low pH. Promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer
phase of cell cycle during which the genome is replicated
spiral shaped bacteria
enzyme that cuts one or both strands of DNA to relieve the excess tension caused by the unwinding of the helix by helicase during replication
the ends of a sarcomere
uses CO2 as carbon source
What structure must all viruses have?
what triggers relaxation of bronchiol smooth muscle
the activation of the sympathetic nervous system
what type of gland is the liver
what is pulse pressure?
difference between systolic and diastolic BP
what is lactose intolerance due to?
due to the decrease in the level of expression of β-galactosidase
secreted in response to high serum Ca2+; it inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone breakdown and increases osteoblast-mediated bone formation
parathyroid and calcitriol
both increase bone reabsorption and decrease bone formation
where is red marrow?
spongy bone of flat bones
role of surfactant
to reduce surface tension
when does secondary oocyte become ootid?
after fertilization, before egg and sperm nuclear membranes fuse
allows you to detect the presence of specific sequences within a heterogeneous sample of DNA. Also allows you to isolate and purify target sequences of DNA
same as southern blotting, except that mRNAs are separated via gel electrophoresis instead of DNA
allows you to detect the presence of certain proteins with a sample and also serves as a diagnostic tool