MCAT Organic Chemistry

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MCAT Organic Chemistry
2014-07-26 20:18:15

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  1. achiral
    a molecule that is superimposable on its mirror image
  2. amphipathic
    a molecule that is both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
  3. anomer
    epimer formed by ring closure
  4. Benedict's test
    a test to detect aldehydes, ketones, and hemiacetals in sugars
  5. chiral
    a molecule that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image
  6. concerted reactions
    reactions that occur in one step without the formation of any intermediates
  7. conformational isomers
    any compounds that have the same molecular formula and the same connectivity but that differ from one another by rotation about a sigma bond
  8. constitutional isomers
    any compounds with the same molecular formula but whose atoms have different connectivity
  9. diasteromers
    stereoisomers that are not enantiomers
  10. distillation
    purification method based on difference in boiling points
  11. enantiomers
    molecules whose mirror images are non-superimposable
  12. enolate ion
    a resonance-stabilized anion resulting from the deprotonation of a carbon atom adjacent to a carbonyl functional group
  13. epimeric center
    the stereocenter at which the configuration differs in epimers
  14. extraction
    a separate technique that relies on relative solubilities of the two solvents used
  15. geometric isomers
    diastereomers that differ in orientation of substituents around a ring or double bond
  16. inductive effect
    sharing of electrons through sigma bonds
  17. isomers
    any compounds that have the same molecular formula
  18. meso compound
    a molecule that contains chiral centers and an internal plane of symmetry
  19. saponification
    the hydrolysis of esters by treatment with a basic solution
  20. stereoisomers
    any compounds with the same molecular formula and connectivity that differ only in the spatial arrangement of atoms
  21. tautomers
    readily interconvertible constitutional isomers
  22. zwitterion
    a molecule with both positive and negative formal charges