Human diseases - Viruses and Prions

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Human diseases - Viruses and Prions
2014-07-26 23:14:59

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  1. what are prions?
    proteinaceous infectious particles that cause disease
  2. what are TSEs?
    family of rare progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals
  3. what are characteristics of TSEs?
    • long incubation periods
    • cause spongiform changes associated with neuronal loss
    • rapidly progressive and always fatal
  4. what are 2 prion human diseases?
    creutzfeld jakob disease and kuru
  5. what are 2 prion animal diseases?
    scrapie in sheep and mad cow disease in cattle
  6. what are the ways that humans can acquire a prion disease?
    • protein misfolding that occurs spontaneously
    • eating meat that is contaminated with brain material with misfolded proteins
  7. what is the size of viruses?
  8. what type of entities are viruses?
  9. what are viruses enclosed by?
    a protein coat
  10. what type of genetic material do viruses have?
    DNA or RNA
  11. what is a VIRION?
    a complete viral particle of nucleic acid and protein coat
  12. what is human virolution?
    about 10% of the human genome is comprised of genetic information from viruses
  13. what are retrotransposons?
    pieces of DNA(virus like) that make copies of themselves
  14. what is the process of endogenization
    viral genetic information can be included in the genome when retroviruses incorporates into the host's germ line
  15. how are viruses classified?
    • capsid symmetry
    • nucleic acid
    • genetic relatedness
  16. what are the ways that viruses can be transmitted?
    • airborne
    • arthropod borne
    • direct contact
    • food and water borne
  17. what are the airborne viral diseases?
    • chickenpox/shingles
    • measles
    • mumps
    • rubella
    • smallpox
    • influenza
  18. what are the characteristics of smallpox (variola) virus
    • large brick shaped complex virus
    • linear dsDNA
  19. what are characteristics of influenza?
    • negative sense RNA
    • disease of the respiratory system
    • high frequency of genetic changes
  20. what is the incubation period for influenza?
    1-2 days
  21. how is the influenza subtypes classified?
    based on hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) membrane surface glycoproteins
  22. how does antigenic shift happen in flu virus?
    due to reassortment of genomes when 2 different strains of flue viruses from humans and animals infect the same cell and are incorporated into a single new capsid
  23. how does antigenic drift happen in flu virus?
    • due to accumulation of mutaions in a strain within a geographic area
    • often the result of point mutations that lead to amino acid substitutions
  24. what are characteristics of HIV?
    • positive sense ssRNA virus
    • enveloped retrovirus: RNA genome is copied into DNA and integrated into the host cell genome
    • mutates rapidly
  25. how does HIV proliferate?
    the retrovirus undergoes reverse transcription to generate DNA from RNA. The DNA is then integrated into the host genome as a provirus
  26. what is a provirus?
    virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell