Bio 209 Ch 23
Card Set Information
Bio 209 Ch 23
What are the major organs of the Respiratory System?
What are the components of the upper respiratory system?
What are the components of the lower respiratory system?
What is the function of the Conducting Zone?
Filter, warm, moisten air and to conduct it to the lungs
What organs are consisted in the conducting zone?
What is the function of the Respiratory Zone?
Exchange O and Carbon Dioxide between air and blood
What organs are consisted in the respiratory zone?
What is the function of the External Nose?
Provides framework of bone and cartilage
What is the function of the Internal Nose?
Warm, moisten, filter air
Describe the structure, location and function of the Pharynx
internal nares to inferior portion of larynx
Where is the Nasopharynx, Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx located?
: Superior portion of pharynx; Extends from internal nares to soft palate
Soft palate to level of hyoid bone
Level of hyoid bone to opening into larynx and opening into esophagus
What is the function of the Uvula?
Closes off nasopharynx to prevent food or liquid from going up the nose
Describe the location, structure and function of the Larynx
connects laryngopharynx with trachea
composed of Thyroid, Epiglottis, Cricoid, 2 Arytnoid, 2 Corniculate, 2 Curneiform (9 cartilages)
passageway for air; produces voice
How do vocal cords produce sounds?
Sound is produced by the vibration of vocal cords when air passes through the larynx
What is Pitch?
The tension (taughtness) on vocal cords
Where is the Trachea located?
From larynx to level of T5 vertebrae; Anterior to espohagus
What is the function of the Trachea?
Passageway for air
What are some structural changes along the bronchial tree?
Epithelium of mucus membrane:
from ciliated to nonciliated-beating of cilia along bronchi, trachea, pharynx to be swallowed or spit out
C shaped cartilage rings in bronchii disappears in terminal bronchioles
amount of smooth muscle increases as cartilage decreases
Describe the location, structure and function of the lungs
each lung surrounded by its own double-layered serous membrane (pleural membrane)
Define Parietal Pleura
Layer that lines the wall of the thoracic cavity
Define Visceral Pleura
Layer that covers the surface of the lungs
What is Pleural Fluid?
Fluid that decreases friction as lungs move during inhalation and exahalation
What is Pleurisy (Pleuritis)?
Inflammation of the pleural membrane
What is a Pneumothorax?
When the pleural cavity fills with air after surgical opening of chest or as a result of a gunshot or stab wound
What is Atelectasis?
Collapse of lungs
Describe the structure of an Alveoli
Spherical structures that are formed of simple squamous cells supported by a thin basement membrane
What is the function of an Alveoli?
Gas exchange and Secretes surfactant
What are the two types of cells that make up the alveolus?
: gas exchange
: secretes surfactant
What is the function of surfactant?
To decrease surface tension in the lungs
Describe the structure of the Respiratory Membrane
Type I & II alveolar cells
Epithelial basement membrane underlying alveolar walls
Capillary basement membrane
Endothelial cells of capillary
What is the function of the Respiratory Membrane?
What is Ventilation Perfusion Coupling?
Dilation of BV to increase blood flow due to hypoxia
What is Pulmonary Ventilation?
Flow of air into and out of lungs
What is External Respiration?
Exchange of gases between air of lungs and blood in pulmonary capillaries
What is Internal Respiration
Exchange of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells
Describe the mechanisms of Inhalation
Pressure of lungs must equal to atmospheric pressure
Before air flows in, pressure in lungs must decrease
Contraction of diaphragm
Describe the mechanisms of Exhalation
Pressure of air inside lungs must be higher than atmospheric pressure
Lung tissue recoils
Diaphragm relaxes and external intercostal muscles decreases thoracic volume
What factors influence Pulmonary Ventilation?
Alveolar Surface Tension
What is Eupnea?
Normal, quiet breathing
Describe Costal Breathing
Shallow breathing due to contraction of external intercostal muscles - upward and outward movement of chest
Describe Diaphragmatic Breathing
Deep abdominal breathing due to contraction of diaphragm
What volume measures ONE breath?
What volume measures the max amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation?
What volume measures the amount of air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation?
What is a Residual Volume?
Air that remains in the lungs after expiratory reserve
What is 30% of tidal volume that remains in conducting zone and does not participate in gas exchange?
Anatomic Dead Space
What is Minute Ventilation?
Total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute
What is Alveolar Ventilation Rate?
Volume of air per minute that reaches respiratory zone
What does a Spirometer measure?
Respiratory air volumes
What does a Spirogram do?
Record values measured by a spirometer
How does gas volume affect gas pressure?
According to Boyle's law, decreasing the volume [of the lungs] will increase lung pressure, and vice versa
Define Partial Pressure
Pressure of a specific gas in a mixture
What is it called when