BDCS Jenny notes 1.txt

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BDCS Jenny notes 1.txt
2014-08-01 22:22:26

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  1. Anthropomorphic
    Relating to human characteristics
  2. Fathom
    Measure of the spread of arms
  3. Mothballing
    Term used in historic preservation when you designate certain areas to be repaired or restored at a later date, under a later contract
  4. Adaptive reuse
    Process of adapting old structures for purposes other than those initially intended while retaining their historic features
  5. Embodied energy
    The sum of all energy required to extract, proces, deliver, and install materials needed to construct a building
  6. Assemble bid packages/solicitation of bids
    • -typically a two week process for mid size projects (approx 20,000sf)
    • -allow three weeks for large projects (100+ workstations)
    • -include site factors, elevator access, building access, dumpster recycling use
    • -award bid to a single dealer, or divvy up to a different furniture, equipment, fixture providers
  7. Asbestos
    Naturally occurring mineral found throughout the world
  8. Permissible exposure limit (PEL)
    Standard that sets the number of asbestos fibers a worker can be exposed to
  9. Lead
    Toxic material once used in paint and other household products, found in air from industrial sources, and in drinking water from plumbing materials
  10. Asbestos
    • Three most common types in buildings: chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite
    • -originally used for spray fireproofing
  11. Chrysotile
    White asbestos, accounts for 95% of asbestos found
  12. Amosite
    Brown asbestos
  13. Crocidolite
    Blue asbestos
  14. Hot and dry design
    • Minimize sun exposure and effects of wind.
    • Use small windows
    • Optimize thermal mass for large temperature swing during the day, and closely cluster buildings for the shade to offer each other
  15. Hot and humid design
    • Minimize sun exposure
    • Maximize natural ventilation
    • Use lightweight construction to minimize radiation of heat and space buildings far apart for breezes
  16. Temperate design
    • Maximize solar gain in the winter, minimize in the summer
    • Maximize breezes in the summer, minimize in the winter
    • Take advantage of daylighting opportunities
  17. Cold temperature design
    • Orient buildings/openings for max protection from cold winds and use small windows/compact shapes to minimize heat loss
    • Use south facing windows to maximize solar gains
  18. Prescriptive code
    • Building code that specific techniques, materials and methods to be used
    • Cut and dry and simple to administer by the official
  19. Performance code
    Bundling code that describes functional requirements, but leave method to achieve decisions up to the designer
  20. Fire walls
    Walls that divide a single building into two or more buildings, if either side collapses the wall will not for the duration of its rating
  21. Fire barriers
    Make up rated assemblies/enclosures (ex. Shaft, exit enclosures, exit passageways, horizontal exits, atriums, mixed use occupancy separation)
  22. Fire partitions
    Devising walls separating tenants, residential units, corridor walls
  23. Smoke Barrier
    • Used as required to prevent the movement of smoke
    • Have a 1hr fire resistance rating
  24. Smoke partition
    Like a smoke barrier, but does not have to resist fire
  25. Horizontal assemblies
    Fire resistance rating (1 or 2 hours) applied to floor and roof construction
  26. Incombustible
    Consisting of or made of material that will not burn if exposed to fire
  27. Type I construction
    • Building elements are of noncombustible materials
    • IA=3hr fire rating
    • IB=2hr fire rating
  28. Type II construction
    • Building elements are of noncombustible materials
    • IIA=1hr min fire rating
    • IIB=no fire rating
  29. Type III construction
    • Exterior walls are of noncombustible materials, interior elements are of any materials allowed by code
    • IIIA=1hr min rating with 2hr exterior bearing walls
    • IIIB=unrated interior with 2hr exterior bearing walls
  30. Type IV construction
    • Heavy timber
    • Exterior walls are of noncombustible materials, interior elements are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces
  31. Type V construction
    • Structural elements, exterior and interior walls are of any materials allowed by code
    • VA=1hr exterior bearing walls
    • VB=no fire rating
  32. Type A construction
    • Protected fire resistance rated construction: all structural members have additional fire rated coating/cover such as Sheetrock or spray on fireproofing
    • Extends the fire resistance rating of structure members by at least an hour
  33. B type construction
    • Unprotected non-fire resistance rated construction: all structural members have no added coating/cover
    • All structural members are only fire resistance according to their natural ability or characteristic
  34. Solider brick
    brick laid on its end with its face (long skinny side) parallel to the wall
  35. Sailor brick
    brick laid on its side with its end parallel to the wall
  36. Rowlock brick
    brick laid on its face with its end (short skinny side) visible in the wall.  Often used for caps on walls and floor sloping sills under windows
  37. Running bond brick pattern
    entirely of stretchers
  38. English Bond brick pattern
    alternates course of headers and stretchers
  39. Common Bond brick pattern
    header course every sixth course, head joints are aligned between the header and stretcher courses
  40. Flemish Bond brick pattern
    alternates headers and stretchers in each course
  41. Outside Applications for joints
    • Weathered joint
    • Concave joint
    • Vee joint
    • Flush joint
  42. Indoor Applications for joints
    • Raked Joint
    • Stripped joint
    • Struck joint
  43. Glass blocks
    • solid or hollow and based on a 4” module
    • Not structural, and limited in area, height, and length
  44. Gypsum Block/Tile
    • made from gypsum plaster and available in 2” - 6” thick panels
    • Interior, non load bearing partitions and fireproofing protection
  45. Structural Clay Tile
    • hollow burned clay masonry units, architectural terra cotta is clay tile in various colors
    • Ceramic veneer is terra cotta in large face dimensions, thin sections and glazed finishes
  46. weep holes
    • When water passes through an outer wythe and into a cavity is has nowhere to go but down… it falls and is caught by impervious membrane called flashing and drains out a weep hole at the bottom of the wall
    • Weep holes are located at 24” apart in brick and 32” apart in concrete masonry
    • Weep holes are about 1/4” diameter minimum
  47. Hollow cores of a CMU wall insulation
    can be filled with granular insulation (Vermiculite), or with special molded to fit liners of foam plastic
  48. Surface divider joints
    must be provide to avoid excessive buildup of forces that could crack or spall the masonry
  49. Abutment/Construction/Isolation Joints
    placed at junctions between masonry and other materials, or between old and new masonry, to accommodate differences in movement
  50. parged
    Below grade, masonry should be parged or plastered on the outside with two coats of Type M mortar to seal cracks and pores
  51. Alloy
    a combination of pure metals to give greater strength or resistance to corrosion
  52. Ferrous Alloy
    alloys that contain a lot of iron (e.g.: stainless steel, galvanized iron)
  53. Non Ferrous Alloys
    doesn’t contain much iron (e.g.: aluminum, copper, zinc)
  54. Iron
    The most abundant metal
  55. Cast Iron
    hard brittle alloy of iron and 2.1 - 4% carbon that can be readily cast in a mold, use for pipes, plumbing fixtures, hardware, castings, etc. (Crystal Place made of it)
  56. Wrought Iron
    iron that has been purified by beating it repeatedly with a hammer, used for ornamental work, grilles, pipes, and outdoor furniture (Eiffel Tower made of it)
  57. Steel
    any range of alloys of iron and carbon that contain less than 2% carbon, the most widely used structural metal in construction, used for framing, concrete, rebar, lathing, conduit, pipes, fixtures, connectors like nails, bolts, and pins.
  58. Aluminum
    Light weight metal with good thermal/electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosion, used for lightweight framing, railings, grills, siding, curtain walls, doors/windows, flashings, roofing, hardware, etc
  59. Copper: 
    Metal that resists corrosion, electrical and thermal activity, used for electrical work, water pipes, roofing/flashing, and mesh
  60. Brass: 
    metal that resists corrosion, used for finish hardware, plumbing, HVAC components and fittings
  61. Lead: 
    Metal that resists corrosion and is workable, but also toxic, heavy, soft, and weak, used for foundations, rough hardware, roofing and flashin
  62. Zinc: 
     Metal used for roof coverings, flashings, and protective coatings for steel
  63. Monel: 
    Metal used for roofing, flashing, countertops, sinks
  64. Bessemer Process:
    steelmaking procedure where carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from iron to make steel.
  65. Basic Oxygen Process:
    steelmaking procedure where a hollow, water-cooled lance is lowered into a container of molten iron/recycled steel scrap and a stream of pure oxygen is blown in at high pressure from the lance to burn off the excess carbon/impurities.
  66. Light Gauge Steel: 
    steel that is cold rolled and lighter than .018”
  67. Bulb Tees:
    a steel reinforcing member used when constructing pre-stressed, poured gypsum deck. When the gypsum is poured, it surrounds the Bulb-Tee.
  68. Steel and the Building Code
    Steel frame construction as either IA, IB, IIA, IIB, IIIIA, or IIIB
  69. Free Water: 
    water held in the cavities of the cells. Reduces water content to 26% - 32% moisture
  70. Bound Water:
    water held in within the cellulose of the cell walls, wood starts to shrink at this point and the strength and stiffness of the wood begins to increase.
  71. Air drying (drying method for wood)
    takes several months and results in 10% - 20% moisture content
  72. Kiln drying (drying method for wood)
    • takes a few days and results in 10% moisture content
    • Kiln drying is generally preferred because its faster and has a more uniform quality
  73. Longitudinal shrinkage:
    shrinkage along length of the long is negligible
  74. Radial shrinkage:
    shrinkage in the radial direction is very large by comparison
  75. Tangental shrinkage:
    shrinkage around the circumference of the log is about half again greater than the railed shrinkage.  
  76. Natural Wood Defects
    • Knots and Knotholes
    • Insect Damage
    • Decay
  77. Manufacturing Wood Defects
    • Splits and Checks
    • Wane
    • Crooks, Cups, Bows, Twists
  78. Lumber Naming Label
  79. Sheathing Panel Label
  80. Nails for Western Red Cedar: 
    hot dipped galvanized, aluminum, and stainless steel (the best option).  All others (including copper) can rust and disintegrate and react with the oils present in the cedar
  81. Bolts
    are used for major structural connections in heavy timber framing • Washers are inserted under the heads of nuts and bolts to distribute the compressive force from the bolt across a greater are of wood
  82. Carriage Bolts: 
    round headed bolt used for timber, threaded along the shank and inserted into holes already drilled.
  83. Most common roof shapes are:
    • Flat Roof
    • Hip Roof
    • Shed/Single Pitch
    • Gambrel Roof
    • Gable Roof
    • Mansard Roof
  84. what construction type allows wood platform framing?
    IBC Allows building of every occupancy group to be constructed with wood platform framing…or Type V Construction
  85. tarpaper
    • Before windows and doors are installed, the wall sheathing is covered with a membrane called tarpaper that acts as an air barrier and backup waterproofing layer
    • Allows water vapor to pass freely so that it doesn’t accumulate on the wall
  86. Housewraps
    • (eg: Tyvek) are airtight, vapor permeable papers made of synthetic fibers are stapled to sheathing in as large of sheets as possible to minimize seams
    • Seams are sealed with self sticking tape
  87. Batt or Blanket
    • Material: Glass wool/rock wool
    • Installation: Between framing members and held in place by friction or facing stapled to framing
    • Pos/Neg: Low in clots, faith high R value, easy to install
  88. Loose fill
    • Material: Glass wool/rock wool
    • Installation: Fill is blown onto attic floors and into wall cavities through holes drilled in siding
    • Pos/Neg: Good for retrofit insulation in older building, may settle in walls
  89. Foamed in place
    • Material: Polyurethane
    • Installation: Foam is mixed from two components and sprayed or injected into place where it adheres
    • Pos/Neg: High R value, high cost, good for structures that are hard to conventionally insulate
  90. Rigid Board
    • Material: Polystyrene Foam
    • Installation: Boards are applied over wall framing members either as sheathing on the exterior or as a layer beneath the interior finish material
    • Pos/Neg: High R value, can be used in contact with the earth, moderate cost
  91. Radiant Barriers
    • are increasingly used in roofs and walls to reduce the flow of solar heat into a building
    • Thin sheets of panels faced with a bright metal foil that reflects infrared radiation
  92. Vapor retarder
    • is a membrane of metal foil, plastic, or treated paper placed on the warm side of thermal insulation to prevent water vapor from entering the insulation and condensing into liquid
    • Many batt insulation materials are furnished with a vapor retarder layer of treated paper or aluminum already attached
  93. Vermiculite:
    a mineral that expands upon being heated, used in the expanded state for heat/sound insulation and fireproofing
  94. Perlite:
    form of obsidian formed by cracking of cooling volcanic glass, used as insulation
  95. Bush Hammering: 
    process of creating a rough, pockmarked texture on concrete or stone that resembles naturally weathered rock
  96. Honing: 
    process of sanding/polishing for a matte or slightly reflective surface
  97. Air Entrained Cements
    • contain ingredients that cause microscopic air bubbles to form in the concrete during mixing which give improved workability during placement, and greatly increases the resistance of the cured concrete to damage caused by repeated cycles of freezing and thawing
    • Commonly used for pavings and exposed architectural concrete in cold climates
    • Can reach the same structural strength a regular concrete
  98. Air entraining admixtures: 
    increase the workability of wet concrete, reduce freeze/thaw damage, and (when a lot is used) create very lightweight non structural concretes with thermal insulating properties
  99. Water reducing admixtures:
    allow a reduction in the amount of mixing water while retaining the same workability, results in a higher strength concrete
  100. High range water reducing admixtures (Superplasticizers):
      organic compounds that transform a stiff concrete mix into one that flows freely into forms, used to help place concrete in challenging circumstances, or to reduce the water content in a mix in order to increase its strength
  101. Accelerating admixtures:
    cause concrete to cure more rapidly
  102. Retarding admixture:
    slow curing to allow more time for working with wet concrete
  103. Silica fume (microsilica):
    a powder 100x finer than portland cement, a byproduct of electronic semiconductor chip manufacturing that when added produces extremely high strength and low permeability
  104. Blast furnace slag:
     byproduct of iron manufacture that improves workability, increases strength, reduce permeability, reduce temperature rise during curing, and improve sulfate resistance
  105. Pozzolans:
    varicose natural/artificial material that react with calcium hydroxide in wet concrete to form cementing compounds
  106. Corrosion inhibitors: 
    used to reduce rusting of rebar in structures that are exposed to road deicing salts or other corrosion causing chemicals
  107. Fibrous admixtures:
    short fibers of glass or steal added to a concrete mix to act as microreinforcing 
  108. Freeze protection admixtures:
    allow concrete to cure at temperatures as lot as 20 degrees F
  109. Extend set control admixtures: 
    used to delay the curing reaction in concrete for up to 7 days. 
  110. rebar labeling
  111. chairs
    Bottom rebars and stirrups are placed horizontally near the bottom of the beam, leaving a specified amount below and to the sides for cover (which protects them from fire and corrosion) by sitting on chairs made of heavy steel wire or plastic, which remain in the beam after the concrete is poured
  112. Prestressing
    • When steel elongates under tension forces the concrete around ti cracks from the deg of the beam to the horizontal plane
    • If initial tension or prestress in the steel bars where of sufficient magnitude, the concrete poured around them would never be subjected to tension and no cracking would occur
    • The beam is also capable of carrying a greater load with the same amount of concrete and steel, making them less expensive as conventional reinforced beams
    • Ordinary rebar is not strong enough and high strength steel strands must be used
    • Steel strands are stressed tightly between abutments in a plant and concrete is cast around the steel
    • After the concrete has cured to a minimum compressive strength, the strands are cut off at either end, and the beam recoils which squeezes all the concrete of the member into compression
  113. Posttensioning
    • Done in place on the building site, high strength strands, called tendons, are covered with a steel or plastic tube to prevent them from bonding to the concrete and are not tensioned until the concrete has cured. 
    • Each tendon is anchored to a steel plate embedded in one end of the beam/slab
    • A hydraulic jack applies tensile force to the other end while compressing the concrete with an equal and opposite forces applied through the plate.
    • The tendon is anchored to the plate and the jack is removed
    • Efficiency is almost identical to that of prestressing system
  114. Slip Forming
    is useful for tall walled structures such as elevator shafts, stairwells, and storage silos, a ring of formwork is pulled by jacks supported on rebar while concrete is added
  115. Tilt Up Construction
     is when a floor slab is cast on the ground, and reinforced concrete wall panels are poured over in a horizontal position.  When cured, they’re hoisted into position and grouted together
  116. Shotcrete
    is concrete sprayed into place pneumatically, and used primarily for repairing damaged concrete on the faces of beams/columns
  117. Socketed Caissons:
     like Belled Caissons, but the hole is drilled deep into the strata.  Bearing capacity comes from end baring and frictional forces
  118. When thermal insulation is installed Below the structural deck:
    • traditional location for it, in the form of low density rigid board or lightweight concrete in order to support the membrane. 
    • It protects the deck from temperature extremes and is protected by the membrane
    • If water or vapor accumulates in the insulation it’s trapped below the membrane and can lead to decay of the insulation and deck
  119. when thermal insulation is installed Between the deck and membrane:
    in cold climates a vapor retarder should be installed below the insulation and the insulation should be ventilated to allow the escape of any moisture that may accumulate there
  120. when thermal insulation is installed Above the membrane:
    • relatively new concept, membrane is protected from extreme heat and col and the is on the warm side of the insulation where it is immune to valor blistering problems
    • Insulation is exposed to water when placed above the membrane, it must have a material that retains its insulating value when it gets wet...and it can’t decay or disintegrate either
    • Extruded polystyrene panels are embedded in a  coat of hot asphalt to adhere them to a membrane below, or are laid loose
    • Held down and protected from sunlight by a layer of ballast, which consists of crushed stone, a thick concrete layer laminated to the upper surface ob the board, or interlocking concrete blocks
  121. Built up Roof Membranes:
     assembled in place from multiple layers of asphalt impregnated felt bedded in bitumen, foam insulation, polymer fabric, and ballast
  122. Single Ply Roof Membranes:
    diverse group of sheet materials that are applied to the roof in a single layer, and require less labor to install
  123. Fluid Applied Membranes:
     used for domes, shells and other complex shapes, a waterproofing layer over sprayed on polyurethane foam insulation
  124. Steep Roofs
    have a pitch of 3:12 or greater
  125. Thatch:
    bundles of reeds, grasses, or leaves, and a highly labor intensive process rarely used today
  126. roofing class A
    effective against fire exposure (slate, concrete tile, clay tiles, asphalt singles with glass felts) and may be used on any building in any type of constriction
  127. roofing class B
    effective against moderate fire exposure (built up and single ply roofs, sheet metal roofing, asphalt shingles on organic felts) and are the minimum class that may be used on Type IA, IB, IIB, IIIA, IV, and VA construction types
  128. roofing class C
    effective against light fire exposure (fire retardant treaded wood shingles and shakes) and the minimum class that may be used for Type IIB, IIIB, and VB construction types
  129. nonclassified roofing
    Nonclassified roof coverings (untreated wood shingles) can be used on Type VB construction and some agriculture, accessory, and storage buildings
  130. The major ingredient of glass
    is sand, which is mixed with soda ash, lime, and a small amount of alumina, potassium oxide, and various element to control color
  131. Glass thickness
    ranges from 3/32” (single strength) - 1/8” (double strength) - 1” depending on the manufacture
  132. Heat Strengthened Glass: 
    • process is similar to tempering but the induced compressive stresses in the surfaces and edges are about 1/3 as high
    • About 2 times as strong ing bending and more resistant to thermal stresses and impact compared to annealed
    • Breakage is more like annealed glass than tempered glass
  133. Security Glass
    used at drive up bank tellers and other secure locations is basically beefed up laminated glass and can stop any caliber of bullet
  134. Fire Rated Glass:
    • Glass in fire doors/separation walls must maintain its integrity as a barrier to the passage of smoke, heat, and flames even after exposure
    • Specially tempered glass is rated at 20 minutes of fire protection
    • Wired Glass is produced by rolling a mesh of small wires into a sheet of hot glass
    • When wired glass breaks from thermal stresses, the wires hold the sheets of glass together to act as a fire barrier
    • Holds a fire resistance rating of 45 minutes
  135. Plastic Glazing Sheets:
    transparent materials often used instead of glass for special applications, and typically more expensive than glass
  136. Aluminum Extrusions
    • Aluminum is the metal of chose for curtain walls
    • It protects itself against corrosion
    • It accepts and hods a variety of attractive surface finishes
    • It can be fabricated economically into elaborate shapes by means of extrusion (basically like a metal version of that playdough extruder you had as a kid)
  137. Anodizing
    • is a process that produces an integral oxide coating on aluminum that is thicker and more durable than the natural oxide film
    • Components are immersed in an acid bath and become the anode in an electrolytic process
  138. Powder coatings
    are also widely used on aluminum cladding, composed of resins and pigments that are electrically charged and sprayed onto the aluminum
  139. Stick System: 
    metal and glass curtain walls where components are metal mullions and rectangular panels of glass and spandrel materials that are assemble ind place on the building
  140. Unit System:
     Takes full advantage of factory assembly and minimizes on site labor
  141. Panel System:
    made up of homogenous units that are formed from metal sheet
  142. Column cover and Spandrel System:
    emphasizes structural module of the building rather than creating its own grid
  143. Types of Plastics
    • Polymer
    • Polyurethane
    • Polystyrene
  144. Polystyrene:
    a rigid clear thermoplastic polymer that can be molded into a foam and used for physical and electrical insulating as well as packing
  145. Polyurethane: 
    a synthetic resin in which polymer units are linked by urethane groups and used primarily in paints and varnishes
  146. Polymer:
    a substance that has a molecular structure built from a lot of similar units bonded together.  Often times is in reference to the family of plastics
  147. Coal Tar Enamel: 
    coating for anti corrosion, resistant to soil bacterial, marine organisms, and root growth.  Used in subterranean pipelines for petroleum products
  148. Alkyd: 
    a modern synthetic resin used to replace oil in varnishes, paints and adhesives. 
  149. Acrylic Paint: 
    fast drying, water resistant paint containing pigments suspended in acrylic polymer emulsion
  150. Urethane Paint: 
    a catalyst paint known for exceptional durability…hard and long lasting
  151. Oleoresinous Paint:
    naturally occurring mixture of oil and a resin extracted from pine/fir trees and thinned with a solvent like turpentine.
  152. Intumescent Paint:
    coating used for fire protection. When heat is present it swells to protect the member it coats (exposed steel structure for instance)
  153. Bituminous Paint: 
    a low cost coating that contains asphalt or coal tar, a thinner, and drying oils used to waterproof concrete and to protect piping where bleeding of the asphalt is acceptable
  154. lath
    • Applied to masonry surface directly, or to a plaster bases know as lath
    • Lath used to be thin strips of wood nailed to wood framing with small spaces left for keying of plater
    • Most lath today is made from expanded metal or preformed gypsum boards
  155. wattle and daub
    Ancestor to plaster systems is wattle and daub, a mesh of woven sticks and vines stuck with mud
  156. gyp finish Level 0
    The minimum, consisting of just the boards without taping, finishing or accessories.  Used in temporary construction or where finished is postposed until later
  157. gyp finish Level 1
    Joints be covered with tape set in joint compound. Used in areas not viewable: above ceilings, attics, service corridors
  158. gyp finsh Level 2
    Adds to Level 1 with a coat of joint compound over the accessories and fasteners.  Used in garages, warehouses, storage areas, backer of ceramic tile
  159. gyp finish Level 3
    Adds another coat of compound over the tape, accessories, and fasteners.  Used for surfaces thaw till be textured or covered with heavy wall covering
  160. gyp finish Level 4
    Adds another coat of compound. Designed for surfaces to be finished with flat paints, light textures or thin wall coverings
  161. gyp finish Level 5
    Adds a very thin skim coat of joint compound over the entire surface to fill pores and low spots in the wall.  Used for surfaces that will have gloss or semigloss paints
  162. panic bolts:
    42” from finish floor
  163. Hinges:
    • exposed, concealed or invisible
    • 8” from the head
    • 10” from the floor
    • Types: mortised, ball bearing, t-strap, cabinet pivot hinge, olive knuckled and invisible.
    • Full mortise, half mortise, half surface, full surface.
  164. R-values
  165. Gantt/Bar Chart:
    • illustrates start to finish dates of a project broken out by activity
    • They focus primarily on schedule management rather than the size of the project or the relative size of the work elements/activities
    • Can’t show the relationship between activities
  166. Stake Lot:
    A Surveyor accurately drives stakes to locate boundaries and building lines
  167. Install Temporary Utilities:
    includes water, power, phone/data, toilets, job shack, etc.
  168. Clear and Rough Grade:
    Remove necessary trees and undergrowth from the site and grade site for approximate drainage patterns, yards, driveways, walkways, etc.
  169. Apply surface stabilization:
    including graded areas, channels, dikes, streams, and disturbed areas where work won’t take place for 30+ days by temp seeding/mulching.
  170. Install Waterproofing and Foundation Drain:
     locate below grade to minimize water accumulation
  171. Install slab plumbing:
    any plumbing that would go in the slab on grade/basement floor.
  172. Utilization Ratio:
    Used by firms to determine the amount of time spent on billable work as a % of total time the employee is compensated.  UR = billable hours / total hours
  173. Multiple of Direct Salary Expense (DSE):
    everyone’s direct salary/wages multiplied by a factor to cover fringe benefits (e.g. Employee health insurance), overhead, and profit
  174. Multiple of Direct Personnel Expense (DPE):
    fringe benefits are included in direct salary/wages...that expense is multiplied by a factor to cover overhead and profit
  175. Professional Fee plus Expenses:
     professional services are separated from the services from identified costs (reimbursable, consultants, etc)
  176. Traditional design fees:
    • Architecture =10% of construction cost
    • Mechanical=15%
    • Electrical=12.5%
    • Civil=10.5%
    • Structural=9.4%
  177. Traditional contractor fees:
    • General Overhead=8-10% value of firm value
    • Project Overhead=4-10% of construction cost
    • Profit=15-20% small jobs
    • 10-15% large jobs
    • 5 - 10% very large jobs
  178. Traditional construction fees:
    • Construction Cost=Amount of $$ to build
    • Construction Budget=85% construction cost
    • Contractor’s OH/Profit=15 - 40% construction cost
    • Surveys, testing, fees, FF&=15%
  179. Traditional project budget:
    • Site Acquisition=not included in project budget
    • Utility/Off Site Construction=not included in project budget
    • On Site construction=10-20% of construction cost
    • Building construction=10-15% of construction cost
    • Contingencies=5-10% of construction cost
    • Professional Services=varies
    • Inspection and Testing=varies
    • Financing=varies!
  180. Mediation:
    not legally binding.  Use of a mediator to reach agreement between parties 
  181. Arbitration:
    legal technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts. It’s a form of binding dispute resolution, equivalent to litigation in the courts.
  182. Litigation:
    conflicts/disputes that are resolved in a court of law.  Typically a last option.
  183. Subrogation:
    legal technique where an insure takes over for a party for whom it has made a payment.  (e.g. damage to a property under construction caused by a subcontractor is covered by insurance who then sues subcontractor in the owner’s name)
  184. Basic honesty Penalties for Violations:
    • Admonition (private) – letter of ruling sent to the parties and kept in the member’s file
    • Censure (public) – letter is sent and notification of the case and ruling is published to AIA membership
    • Suspension of membership – membership is suspended for period of time; 1 or 2 years & ruling is published
    • Termination of membership – membership is terminated & ruling is published