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Name the 4 types of Tissue.
3 Functions of Epithelial Tissue?
Notable characteristics of epithelial tissue.
- Always has a free surface
- Anchored to underlying connective tissue, aka "basement membrane"
- No direct blood supply
- Lower cells mitotic, top layer cells are not
- 2 Types: membranous or glandular
Connective Tissue functions.
- Binds structures together
Connective Tissue characteristics.
- Made of cells & a supporting extracellular matrix
- Cells normally spaced far apart
- Well vascularized
Composition of Extracellular Matrix?
Fibers and Ground Substance
What is Collagen?
- Component of ECM
- Long fibers of Protein
Numerous collagens (I-VII, etc) classified into 4 types.
- Fibril - long, thick strands. Type I collagen.
- Fibril-associated - short, thin strands. Attach collagen fibrils to each other & ECM.
- Anchoring Fibrils - thin, bind basal lamina and reticular lamina together (type VII exclusively)
- Network forming - major component of basal lamina (type IV exclusively)
What is needed for proper collagen formation?
Vitamin C. Deficit leads to scurvy.
Very thin fibers formed exclusively of type III collagen?
Reticular Fibers form a __________ __________ within organs.
Main component of the reticular lamina of the basement membrane.
Found scattered throughout ground substance of loose connective tissue.
These are thin fibers primarily of the protein elastin. Found in connective tissue where stretch and recoil is needed.
What is ground substance?
Transparent mixture of macromolecules; varies in consistency; fluid or solid
Components of Ground Substance?
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) - long linear polysaccharides, highly hydrophilic, viscous and polyanionic (able to bind many cations).
Most prevalent and largest glycosaminoglycan in ground substance?
Proteoglycans are formed from what?
- GAGs and Proteins covalently bonded.
- Ex. dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, heparin sulfate.
What is a Glycoprotein?
- Large globular proteins covalently bonded to monosaccharide chains.
- Ex. fibronectin and laminin
- Hold and support fibers/cells
- Hydrophilic - absorbs water and resists compression/tension
- Physically impedes movement of invasive agents (e.g. bacteria)
- Passes nutrients and rids waste between blood supply and cells
- Regulates communication between cells within ECM
What is the fluid within connective tissue that's not bound up by large molecules of ground substance?
Interstitial/Extracellular Fluid is similar to what type of other fluid?
Plasma due to it being derived from blood plasma, via diffusion and filtration.
Interstitial/Extracellular fluid has a __________ concentration of blood proteins due to large proteins being unable to cross vessel wall.
Interstitial/Extracellular fluid is normally in small quantities. Edema and swelling is caused by what?
When the EC Fluid is not recycled properly