Chapter 22 Reproductive System

Card Set Information

Author:
ginarjones
ID:
279887
Filename:
Chapter 22 Reproductive System
Updated:
2014-07-29 06:18:37
Tags:
chapter22 reproductive system davis icc anatomy physiology p2
Folders:

Description:
Chapter 22 Reproductive System ICC:Davis A&P 2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user ginarjones on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What are the functions of the male reproductive system?
    • Produce and maintain sperm
    • transport sperm
    • secrete male sex hormones
  2. Primary sex organs of the male reproductive system
    testes
  3. Produces sperm and male sex hormones
    testes
  4. Accessory organs of the male reproductive system
    • epididymis (2)
    • vas deferens (2)
    • ejaculatory duct (2)
    • urethra
    • seminal vesicles (2)
    • prostate gland
    • bulbourethral gland (2)
    • scrotum
    • penis
  5. Part of the male reproductive system which originates behind the peritoneum near the kidneys, and are suspended by a spermatic cord within the scrotum
    testes
  6. The testes are suspended within the scrotum by what?
    A spermatic cord
  7. A fibrous cord that guides the descent of the testes through the inguinal canal and into the scrotum
    gubernaculum
  8. Anchors the testes in the scrotum
    gubernaculum
  9. Condition where abdominal temperature stops sperm production
    cryptorchidism
  10. What stimulates the descent of the testes 1-2 months prior to birth?
    Testosterone
  11. Testes are composed of how many lobules?
    About 250
  12. Lobules in testes are seperated by this
    septa
  13. Each lobule within the testes contains 1-4 highly coiled ____
    seminiferous tubules
  14. Seminiferous tubules unite to form this, which then joins the epididymis
    rete testis
  15. What are the two cell types in seminiferous tubules?
    • Spermatogenic cells
    • sertoli's cells
  16. Cells in seminiferous tubules which give rise to sperm cells
    spermatogenic cells
  17. Cells in seminiferous tubules which support and nourish spermatogenic cells
    sertoli's cells
  18. Cells between seminiferous tubules which produce and secrete male hormones
    Leydig cells (interstitial cells)
  19. Begins with undifferentiated cells called spermatogonia which contain 46 chromosomes
    spermatogenesis
  20. Spermatogenesis begins with undifferentiated cells which are called what?
    Spermatogonia
  21. During spermatogenesis, some spermatogonia become what?
    Primary spermatocytes
  22. Primary spermatocytes divide and form two what?
    Secondary spermatocytes
  23. Secondary spermatocytes divide to form what?
    Spermatids
  24. Spermatids mature and become what?
    Sperm cells
  25. How many chromosomes are in sperm cells?
    23 chromosomes
  26. Matures to become sperm cells with 23 chromosomes each
    spermatids
  27. Part of the sperm which contains the nucleus with 23 chromosomes
    head
  28. Covers the head of sperm and contains enzymes
    acrosome
  29. Part of the sperm which contains mitocondria
    body
  30. Part of the sperm which contains ATP (flagellum)
    tail
  31. Tightly coiled tube on the outside of the testes
    epididymis
  32. Leads to the vas deferens
    epididymis
  33. Stores sperm cells while they mature (cells are stored up to 6 weeks)
    epididymis
  34. How long are sperm cells stored in the epididymis as they mature?
    Up to 6 weeks
  35. Muscular tube that forms part of the spermatic cord
    vas deferens
  36. Leads from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
    vas deferens
  37. Forms from the uniting of the vas deferens and ducts of the seminal vesicle
    ejaculatory duct
  38. This accessory organ of the male reproductive system passes through the prostate gland
    ejaculatory duct
  39. Receives fluid from the 2 ejaculatory ducts
    urethra
  40. A sac-like structure attached to each vas deferens which empites into the ejaculatory duct
    seminal vesicles
  41. This accessory organ of the male reproductive system secretes an alkaline fluid to help regulate the pH of the passage tubes for sperm
    seminal vesicles
  42. This accessory organ of the male reproductive system secretes fructose sugar, which is an energy source
    seminal vesicles
  43. This accessory organ of the male reproductive system secretes prostaglandins which stimulates muscular contractions in female organs
    seminal vesicles
  44. This type of fluid is secreted by the seminal vesicles to help regulate pH of passage tubes for sperm
    alkaline fluid
  45. Secreted by the seminal vesicles to stimulate muscular contractions in female organs
    prostaglandins
  46. An accessory organ of the male reproductive system which surrounds the urethra below the bladder
    prostate gland
  47. Secretes a thin, milky fluid which neutralizes seminal fluid and vaginal secretions to enhance sperm motility
    prostate gland
  48. The thin, milky fluid secreted by the prostate gland enhances what?
    Sperm motility
  49. What type of fluid is secreted by the prostate gland to neutralize seminal fluid and vaginal secretions to enhance sperm motility
    a thin, milky fluid
  50. This accessory organ of the male reproductive system enlarges as men age and may interfere with urination
    prostate gland
  51. Also known as Cowper's glands
    bulbourethral glands
  52. Bulbourethral glands are also known as what?
    Cowper's glands
  53. Small structures found below the prostate
    bulbourethral glands/cowper's glands
  54. Secretes lubricant for the penis
    bulbourethral glands/cowper's glands
  55. What is secreted by the bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands)?
    Lubricant for the penis
  56. A pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue that surrounds the testes
    scrotum
  57. Smooth muscle in the scrotal wall which causes the skin of the scrotum to hang tightly or loosely around testes
    dartos muscle
  58. For sperm production, temperature in the scrotum must be what?
    5 degrees below body temperature
  59. Cylindrical organ of the male reproductive system which carries urine and seminal fluid
    penis
  60. How many columns of erectile tissue is the body of the penis composed of?
    3
  61. The distal end of the penis, covered by foreskin which can be removed by circumcision
    glans penis
  62. Another name for the foreskin of the penis
    prepuce
  63. The removal of the foreskin of the penis
    circumcision
  64. Vascular spaces within erectile tissue become engorged with blood as arteries dilate and veins constrict
    erection
  65. Culmination of sexual stimulation and involves a physiological and psychological release, accompanied by emission and ejaculation
    orgasm
  66. Movement of sperm from the testes and the movement of secretions from the glands
    emission
  67. Forcing of the seminal fluid through the urethra to the outside
    ejaculation
  68. During ejaculation, the contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of organs is caused by what?
    Sympathetic reflexes
  69. What is the pathway for erection, orgasm and ejaculation?
    • Bulbourethral glands secrete lubricant for penis
    • prostate gland releases fluid to enhance sperm motility
    • passage of sperm
    • ejection of fluid from seminal vesicles
  70. What does seminal fluid (semen) contain?
    • Sperm cells from testes
    • secretions from seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands
  71. How many mL is an ejaculation?
    2-6
  72. How many sperm are in 1mL of semen?
    120 million
  73. How many sperm are in each ejaculation of semen?
    240-720 million
  74. How many drops are in each mL of semen?
    20 drops
  75. How many sperm are in each drop of semen?
    6 million
  76. Contains sperm cells from the testes, and secretions from seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands.
    Semen (seminal fluid)
  77. Male reproductive functions are controlled by hormones from where?
    • Hypothalamus
    • anterior pituitary
    • testes
  78. How long are males reproductively immature?
    First 10 years
  79. Released by the hypothalamus in males at around age 10, making them reproductively mature
    gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  80. In the male reproductive system, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the anterior pituitary to release what?
    2 gonadotropins
  81. In the male reproductive system, what does FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) stimulate?
    Spermatogenesis
  82. Stimulates spermatogenesis in the male reproductive system
    FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
  83. In the male reproductive system, stimulates interstitial cells to produce male sex hormones
    LH (luteinizing hormone) / ICSH (interstitial cell-stimulating hormone)
  84. Male hormones produced mainly by testes but some from adrenal cortex
    androgens
  85. The most abundant androgen
    testosterone
  86. Stimulates the formation of the male reproductive organs during fetal development
    testosterone
  87. Causes the testes to descend during fetal development
    testosterone
  88. In the male reproductive system, this ceases during childhood until puberty (13-15) until reproductive functionality
    testosterone
  89. In males what happens at puberty?
    • Enlargement of testes and accessory organs
    • stimulates production of RBC (erythropoietin release)
    • hair, voice, broadening, muscles, skin, bone strength
  90. What happens when testosterone rises?
    Hypothalamus is inhibited and anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and ICSH is reduced
  91. What happens when testosterone falls?
    Hypothalamus signals the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and ICSH
  92. What are the functions of the female reproductive system?
    • Produce and maintain egg cells
    • transport eggs to site of fertilization
    • provide site for developing fertilization
    • move offspring out
    • produce female sex hormones
  93. Primary sex organs of the female reproductive system
    ovaries
  94. Accessory organs of the female reproductive system
    • uterine tubes
    • uterus
    • vagina
    • labia majora
    • labia minora
    • clitoris
    • vestibule
    • vestibular glands
  95. Organ of the female reproductive system located in a depression of the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity
    ovaries
  96. Organ of the female reproductive system which descends from the parietal peritoneum
    ovaries
  97. Where do the ovaries descend from?
    Parietal peritoneum
  98. What are the 2 regions of the ovaries?
    • Inner medulla
    • outer cortex
  99. The region of the ovaries containing ovarian follicles
    outer cortex
  100. The region of the ovaries containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers
    inner medulla
  101. Formed during fetal development by the outer cortex of the ovaries
    primordial follicles
  102. How many primordial follicles are formed by the cortex during fetal development?
    Several million
  103. Primary oocytes surrounded by follicular cells
    primordial follicles
  104. What do primordial follicles consist of?
    Primary oocytes surrounded by follicular cells
  105. What are primary oocytes surrounded by?
    Follicular cells
  106. During fetal development, primary oocytes start to undergo ____ but stop until puberty
    meiosis
  107. The primary oocytes diminish from several million. How many are left at birth?
    About a million
  108. How many primary oocytes survive to puberty?
    400,000
  109. How many oocytes are released during a female's life?
    400-500
  110. Beginning at puberty, what stimulates primordial follicles to become primary follicles which contain primary oocytes?
    FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
  111. What do primary oocytes divide into?
    Larger secondary oocyte and a smaller first polor body
  112. Occurs when the secondary oocyte is released from the ovary due to LH and enters into the uterine tube
    ovulation
  113. What hormone causes ovulation?
    LH (luteinizing hormone)
  114. What forms once the sperm nucleus fertilizes the secondary oocyte?
    Zygote
  115. How many chromosomes are in a zygote?
    46
  116. How many chromosomes are in a secondary oocyte?
    23
  117. Ciliated tube which carries the egg to the uterus
    uterine tube (fallopian tube, oviduct)
  118. Funnel-shaped end of the fallopian tube, nearest the artery
    infundibulum
  119. Extensions off of the infundibulum
    fimbriae
  120. Receives the embryo and sustains its life during development
    uterus
  121. The upper 2/3 of the uterus
    body
  122. The lower 1/3 of the uterus
    cervix
  123. Which part of the uterus connects to the vagina?
    Cervix
  124. What are the 3 layers of the uterus?
    • Endometrium
    • myometrium
    • perimetrium
  125. The inner layer of the uterus (mucosal)
    endometrium
  126. The middle, muscular layer of the uterus
    myometrium
  127. The outer, serosal layer of the uterus
    perimetrium
  128. Connects the uterus to the vestibule
    vagina
  129. In the female reproductive system, this is posterior to the urethra and anterior to the anus
    vagina
  130. What is the opening to the vagina called?
    Vaginal orifice
  131. The thin membrane which partially closes the vagina
    hymen
  132. What are the functions of the vagina?
    • Receives the penis
    • conveys uterine secretions to the outside
    • transports fetus during birth
  133. The outermost, rounded folds of fatty tissue and skin that enclose and protect other external organs in the female reproductive system
    labia majora
  134. The flattened, longitudinal folds between the labia majora
    labia minora
  135. Forms the sides of the vestibule and forms a hood over the clitoris
    labia minora
  136. Small projection at the end of the vulva
    clitoris
  137. Composed of erectile tissue and sensory nerve fibers in the female reproductive system
    clitoris
  138. In the female reproductive system, this corresponds to the penis
    clitoris
  139. The space between the labia minora which encloses the vaginal and urethral openings
    vestibule
  140. In the female reproductive system these correspond to the bulbourethral glands
    vestibular glands
  141. Secrete mucus into the vestibule during sexual excitement
    vestibular glands
  142. The area between the anus and the vagina
    perinium
  143. With stimulation, ____ from the spinal cord inhibit sympathetic control of the arteries in erectile tissue causing them to dilate.
    Parasympathetic impulses
  144. When the clitoris and vaginal tissue become engorged with blood, what happens?
    Vaginal opening expands and elongates
  145. During orgasm, what muscles contract to aid the movement of sperm?
    • Perineum
    • uterine wall
    • uterine tube
  146. The female reproductive functions are controlled by hormones from where?
    • Hypothalamus
    • anterior pituitary
    • ovaries
  147. Play primary roles in controlling female sex cell matruation and in producing female sex hormones
    • FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
    • LH (luteinizing hormone)
  148. Where are female sex hormones produced?
    • Ovaries (mainly)
    • adrenal cortex
    • placenta (during pregnancy)
  149. Stimulates the enlargement of accessory organs and development of female secondary sex characteristics
    estrogen
  150. Promotes changes that occur in the uterus during the female reproductive cycle
    progesterone
  151. Male hormone which causes women to grow hair, have narrow shoulders and broad hips
    androgen
  152. Regularly recurring changes in the uterine lining which begins around 13 and continues into middle ages
    menstrual cycle (menses)
  153. What does FSH stimulate during the menstrual cycle?
    Maturation of a follicle
  154. What do maturing follicles secrete during the menstrual cycle?
    Estrogen
  155. What stimulates ovulation and causes follicular cells to form the corpus luteum?
    LH (luteinizing hormone)
  156. LH (luteinizing hormone) causes follicular cells to form this
    corpus luteum
  157. What does the corpus luteum secrete?
    • Estrogen
    • progesterone
  158. Causes more uterine walll development
    estrogen
  159. Causes the lining of the uterus to become glandular and vascular
    progesterone
  160. Inhibits the secretion of FSH and LH during the menstrual cycle
    estrogen and progesterone
  161. If there is no fertilization during the menstrual cycle, what happens to the corpus luteum?
    It degenerates and no longer secretes estrogen and progesterone
  162. As estrogen and progesterone decline, the uterine lining disintegrates causing what?
    Menstrual flow (day 28) end of one cycle and beginning of new
  163. What causes termination of the menstrual cycle?
    Aging of the ovaries
  164. 50% of women reach menopause by what age?
    50
  165. 85% of women reach menopause by what age?
    52
  166. How many women experience unpleasant feelings during menopause?
    Half
  167. Monopause results in a low ____ concentration and a high concentration of ____ & ____
    • estrogen
    • FSH
    • LH
  168. Condition characterized by the presence of a developing offspring in the uterus
    pregnancy
  169. When a sperm and egg unite, becoming a zygote in the uterine tube
    fertilization
  170. The zygote undergoes cleavage to form a 16-celled solid ball called what?
    Morula
  171. The morula continues dividing to form a hollow ball called what?
    Blastocyst
  172. Implanted during the first week of pregnancy in the endometrium of the uterus
    blastocyst
  173. The 2nd to 8th week of pregnancy, the blastocyst becomes this
    embryo
  174. After the 8th week of pregnancy, the embryo is known as this
    fetus
  175. Produced by the embryonic cells to maintain the corpus luteum and hence the levels of estrogen and progesterone
    hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
  176. How is hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) detected?
    Urine test
  177. After 3 months, what takes over as the main source of estrogen and progesterone?
    The placenta
  178. The abstinence from sexual intercourse a few days before and after ovulation
    rhythm method
  179. The practice of withdrawing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation
    coitus interruptus
  180. Prevents sperm from entering the female reproductive tract (male condoms, female condoms, diaphragm)
    mechanical barriers
  181. Mechanical barriers which prevent STDs
    male condoms
  182. Creams, foams, jellies: create an unfavorable environment, best used with a condom or diaphragm
    chemical barriers
  183. Pills that prevent ovulation and uterine build-up, with many side effects
    oral contraceptives
  184. Intramuscular injection of Depo-provera prevents maturation and release of secondary oocyte for 3 months, with many side effects
    injectable contraception
  185. Rods or capsules of progesterone that are implanted under the skin, effective up to 5 months
    implants
  186. Solid object put in the uterus to stop implantation
    intrauterine devices (IUD)
  187. Most reliable form of birth control which doesn't alter hormonal levels
    surgical methods
  188. Surgical method of birth control in which the vas deferens are cut and tied
    vasectomy
  189. Surgical method of birth control in which the uterine tubes are cut and tied
    tubal ligation
  190. Symptoms of this STD include painful urination and intercourse, mucous discharge from penis or vagina
    chlamydia
  191. Symptoms of this STD include genital sores and fever
    genital herpes
  192. Symptoms of this STD include warts on the genitals
    genital warts
  193. Symptoms of this STD include painful urination in men and usually no symptoms for women
    gonorrhea
  194. Symptoms of this STD include fever, weakness, infections, and cancer
    HIV
  195. Symptoms of this STD initially include sores on the mouth or genitals, a rash 6 months later and then several years with no symptoms as the infection spreads, finally damaging the heart, liver, nerves, and brain
    syphilis

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview