– the smallest unit of matter that can exist on its own. Found on the periodic table of elements, some maybe bonded to them selves, some to other types of atom.
What is an Ion?
– some atoms lose or gain electrons from their outer shell (valance shell) to have complete shells, it makes them stable (no longer reactive)
What is an Isotope?
– some atoms have a different number of protons to ones of the same atomic number, therefore changing the mass number of the atom ie carbon 6-12, carbon 6-13, carbon 6 - 14
What is an Electron?
– a particle within the atom having a negative charge, located in shells around the nucleus (very small compared to proton and neutron)
What is a Proton?
– particle within the atom having a positive charge, located in the nucleus of the atom (the centre) along with neutrons (the number of protons will give the mass number of the atom)
What is a Neutron?
– a particle within the atom that has a neutral charge (no charge), located in the nucleus of the atom (centre) along with protons
What is the Atomic number?
– the number of protons in the atom, also its place in the periodic table
What is the Mass number?
– the number of protons + neutrons in an atom (what is in the nucleus)
What is a Group?
– looking down the columns of atoms in the periodic table, it gives its reactivity, also gives us the number of electrons in an atom's outer shell (also charge of the ion) ie group 1 all have one electon in outer shell and will be +1 ions
What is a Period?
– looking across the rows of atoms in the periodic table, it gives the number of shells that atoms have ie period 2 these atoms all have 2 electron shells
What is the Atomic Symbol –
the symbol given to the atom, can be seen on the periodic table ie H =hydrogen
What is the Electron arrangement?
– the arrangement of the electrons into the electron shells, can be either atom or ion (remember max 2 in first, 8 in second, 8 in third) ie magnesium = 2,8,2
What is a diagram of an atom/ion?
– a visual representation of what an atom looks like, the exact number of protons, electons, neutrons drawn correctly
What are Ionic compounds?
A cation and an anion chemically joined as a compound
eg: Na+ + Cl- --> NaCl
– chemical bonding of two elements, where a non-metal bonds to a
metal (you need to be able to name these, and draw correct symbols ie MgCl2 magnesium chloride)
What are Word equations?
– when a chemical reaction occurs, the word version of this reaction ie water + magnesium ---> hydrogen gas + magnesium oxide
What are Chemical equations?
– when a chemical reaction occurs, the chemical version of this reaction ie H20 + Mg ---> H2 + MgO excellence requires ballancing