A&P1_Chapter1.txt

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etombs
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27995
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A&P1_Chapter1.txt
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2010-07-28 07:15:41
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Anatomy Physiology Memmler\'s Human Body Health Disease
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Anatomy & Physiology 1: Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease - Chapter 1
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  1. Define: Anatomy
    The study of the structure of the body
  2. Define: Physiology
    The study of the functions of the body
  3. Define: Pathology
    The study of the diseases and anything that upsets the normal structure or working processes of the body
  4. Name the four type of tissues in the body
    • muscle
    • nerve
    • epithelial
    • connective
  5. Describe the levels of organization of the body from the chemicals to the whole organism.
    • a) Living matter is derived from simple chemicals and compounds that are the building blocks that make up living cells, which are the basic unit of biological organization to sustain life.
    • b) Cells are broken into specialized groups that form tissues
    • c) Tissues; muscle, nerve, epithelial, and connective, may or may not work together as organs.
    • d) Organs are a group of organized tissues working together to support one or more body systems.
  6. Explain the hierchy of things in the body
    • a) Living matter is derived from simple chemicals and compounds that are the building blocks that make up living cells, which are the basic unit of biological organization to sustain life.
    • b) Cells are broken into specialized groups that form tissues
    • c) Tissues; muscle, nerve, epithelial, and connective, may or may not work together as organs.
    • d) Organs are a group of organized tissues working together to support one or more body systems.
    • e) A system is a group of organs that work together to perform a common function.
  7. the 206 bones and joints that make up the basic framework for the human body
    The skeletal system
  8. The Body system that includes skin which include the hair, nails, sweat and oil glands
    The Integumentary system
  9. the system attached to the bones to produce movement, protect organs, maintain posture, and define the body structure
    The Muscular System
  10. contains the brain, the spinal cord, and all the nerves that the body uses to control and coordinate the body systems and movements
    The Nervous System
  11. all the organs that produce hormones which regulate the body’s activity and growth, food utilization, and reproduction
    The Endocrine System
  12. the heart and blood vessels that pump blood to all the body tissues, bringing oxygen and nutrients as well as carrying away waste material
    The Cardiovascular System
  13. assists in circulation by bringing fluid back from the tissues to the blood. They help regulate the digestion of fats and protect against diseases
    The Lymphatic System
  14. includes the lungs and all the passages leading to and from the lungs. Its main purpose is to bring oxygen to the body and to expel carbon dioxide
    The Resperatory System
  15. a group of organs that take in foods and convert them into a form that the body can as well as expel waste product
    The Digestive System
  16. The primary system to rid the body of waste products and excess water
    The Urinary system
  17. includes all external sex organs and related internal structures designated for the production of offspring
    Reproductiove System
  18. Define: metabolism
    Metabolism is all the life-sustaining reactions occurring within the collective body systems.


    • 1. Catabolism is the breakdown of foods into simpler compounds and are the chemical building blocks that power cellular activities
    • 2. Anabolism is the process of taking the simple chemical compounds to build materials needed for growth, function, and repair of all tissues.
  19. Name the two subfunctions of Metabolism
    • a) Catabolism
    • b) Anabolism
  20. Define: Homeostasis
    Homeostasis is the maintenance of the steady state of all living things, such as body temperature, body fluid composition, heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure
  21. List both types of Homeostasis and explain the difference
    a) negative feedback and positive feedback

    Negative feedback is a process within homeostasis that is used to maintain a normal range by reversing actions with an upward or downward shift as opposed to positive feedback, which continues the action by promoting more of the same until the stimulus is removed
  22. Directional terms for the body: generally refer to above and below in the body, respectively. This term is not defined as a particular part of the body, but rather two parts of the body in relation to each other
    Superior and inferior
  23. Directional terms for the body: means toward the belly in humans
    Ventral/anterior
  24. Directional terms for the body: is nearer to the head and caudal is the located closer to the base of the spine or tailbone
    Cranial
  25. Directional terms for the body: is nearer to the imaginary line bisecting the body into left and right if you are dividing it from the front. Lateral is anything moving away from the imaginary line to the outside.
    Medial
  26. List and define the three plains of division for the body
    • 1) The frontal (coronal) plain divides the front of the body and the back of the body
    • 2) The sagittal plain divides the body into left and right portions. (Right and left sides are determined from the perspective of the body itself. )
    • 3) The traverse plain splits the body half into superior and inferior portions.
  27. What ate the plains of the body?
    • a) The frontal (coronal) plain divides the front of the body and the back of the body
    • b) The sagittal plain divides the body into left and right portions. (Right and left sides are determined from the perspective of the body itself. )
    • c) The traverse plain splits the body half into superior and inferior portions.
  28. Name the subdivisions of the dorsal and ventral cavities.
    The Dorsal Cavity is broken into the cranial cavity (superior) and the spinal cavity (inferior.)

    The Ventral cavity is broken into the Thoracic cavity (Superior) and the Abdomino-pelvic cavity (inferior), which is further broken down into the Abdominal (superior) and Pelvic (inferior) cavity.
  29. go
  30. Name the Body Systems
    Cardiovascular, Digestive, Endocrine, Lymphatic, Muscular, Nervous, Reproductive, Respiratory, Skeletal, Integumentary (AKA skin), Urinary systems

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