Human Diseases - protozoan parasites

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Human Diseases - protozoan parasites
2014-07-30 00:43:04

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  1. what are protozoa's source of energy?
    organic compounds (chemoorgannotrophs)
  2. describe the 2 ways the protozoa reproduce?
    • asexually
    • sexually
  3. cyst
    resting form of a parasite
  4. trophozoite
    acitve, vegetative form of the parasite
  5. encystation
    formation of a cyst
  6. excystation
    • escape from the cyst
    • triggered by return to a favorable environment or by entry into a new host
  7. what are 3 ways a protozoan can be transmitted?
    • food and water
    • vector -born
    • sexually transmitted
  8. what are the 4 major categories of protozoans?
    • kinetoplastids
    • apicomplexans
    • trichomonas
    • giardia
  9. how are giardia intestinal is transmitted?
    • cyst contaminated water
    • animal reservoirs
    • asymptomatic human carriers
  10. Giardia intestinalis
    cysts --> trophozoites --> attach to intestinal epithelium and interfere with nutrient absorption
  11. what is the disease called when a person is infected with G. intestinalis?
  12. what are the clinical manifestations of Giardiasis?
    diarrhea, epigastric pain cramps
  13. what is the treatment of giardiasis?
    antiprotozoal agents
  14. how do you prevent giardiasis?
    aviod contaminated water and use filters or boiling to treat drinking water
  15. what protist causes trichomoniasis?
    trichomonas vaginalis
  16. what are the clinical manifestations of trichomoniasis?
    • 1.accumulation of leukocytes at site of infection
    • 2. yellow vaginal discharge/itching in females
    • 3. burning urination in males
  17. how do you diagnose trichomoniasis?
    observation of parasite in vaginal discharge, semen, or urine
  18. what protozoa causes amebiasis (amebic dysentery)?
    caused by entamoeba histolytic
  19. what are the clinical manifestations of amebiasis?
    asymptomatic to fulminatind dysentery, exhaustive diarrhea, appendicitis and abscesses of liver, lungs and brain
  20. how do you get in infected with amebiasis?
    ingestion of mature cysts from fecally contaminated water, food or hands or from fecal exposure during sexual contact
  21. kinetoplast
    • specialized DNA-containing organelle located in the mitochondrion
    • has catenated kDNA circles that encode proteins involved in mitochondrial energy production
  22. Leishmania and trypanosoma are examples of what?
    • flagellated kinetoplastids
    • both types of hemoflagellate diseases
  23. how are hemoflagellte diseases transmitted?
    bites of infected arthropods