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what are protozoa's source of energy?
organic compounds (chemoorgannotrophs)
describe the 2 ways the protozoa reproduce?
resting form of a parasite
acitve, vegetative form of the parasite
formation of a cyst
- escape from the cyst
- triggered by return to a favorable environment or by entry into a new host
what are 3 ways a protozoan can be transmitted?
- food and water
- vector -born
- sexually transmitted
what are the 4 major categories of protozoans?
how are giardia intestinal is transmitted?
- cyst contaminated water
- animal reservoirs
- asymptomatic human carriers
cysts --> trophozoites --> attach to intestinal epithelium and interfere with nutrient absorption
what is the disease called when a person is infected with G. intestinalis?
what are the clinical manifestations of Giardiasis?
diarrhea, epigastric pain cramps
what is the treatment of giardiasis?
how do you prevent giardiasis?
aviod contaminated water and use filters or boiling to treat drinking water
what protist causes trichomoniasis?
what are the clinical manifestations of trichomoniasis?
- 1.accumulation of leukocytes at site of infection
- 2. yellow vaginal discharge/itching in females
- 3. burning urination in males
how do you diagnose trichomoniasis?
observation of parasite in vaginal discharge, semen, or urine
what protozoa causes amebiasis (amebic dysentery)?
caused by entamoeba histolytic
what are the clinical manifestations of amebiasis?
asymptomatic to fulminatind dysentery, exhaustive diarrhea, appendicitis and abscesses of liver, lungs and brain
how do you get in infected with amebiasis?
ingestion of mature cysts from fecally contaminated water, food or hands or from fecal exposure during sexual contact
- specialized DNA-containing organelle located in the mitochondrion
- has catenated kDNA circles that encode proteins involved in mitochondrial energy production
Leishmania and trypanosoma are examples of what?
- flagellated kinetoplastids
- both types of hemoflagellate diseases
how are hemoflagellte diseases transmitted?
bites of infected arthropods