ch 13: personality

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wvuong
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279986
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ch 13: personality
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2014-07-30 04:39:43
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psych160 personality
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psych160
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personalities
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  1. personality
    the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person
  2. psychodynamic approaches to personality
    approaches that assume that personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness and over which they have no control
  3. psychoanalytic theory
    Freud's theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality
  4. unconscious
    a part of the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware
  5. preconscious
    contains material that is not threatening and is easily brought to mind
  6. To Freud, personality consists of 3 separate but interacting components
    the id, the ego, and the superego
  7. the id
    • raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality,
    • from time of birth, id attempts to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses
  8. pleasure principle
    • goal is immediate reduction of tension and maximization of satisfaction;
    • reality prevents the fulfillment of the demands of the pleasure principle
  9. ego
    • part of the personality that provides a buffer between id and outside world 
    • -begins after birth, balances desires of id and realities of outside world
    • 'executive' - makes decisions, controls actions, allows thinking and problem solving of a higher order than id's capabilities permit
  10. reality principle
    instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the individual's safety and to help integrate the person into society
  11. superego
    • final personality structure to develop; represents the rights and wrongs of society as handed down by a person's parents, teachers ,and other important figures
    • includes conscience
  12. psychosexual stages
    developmental periods that children pass thru during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges
  13. fixations
    conflicts/concerns that persist beyond the development period in which they first occur
  14. list the psychosexual stages
    • 1. oral
    • 2. anal
    • 3. phallic
    • 4. latency
    • 5. genital
  15. Oral stage
    • birth to 12-18 months; 
    • interest in oral gratification from sucking, eating, mouthing, biting
  16. anal stage
    • 12-18 months to 3 years; 
    • gratification from expelling and withholding feces; coming to terms with society's control relating toilet training
  17. Phallic stage
    • 3 to 5-6 years; 
    • interest in the genitals, coming to terms with the Oedipal conflict leading to identification with same sex parent
  18. Latency stage
    • 5-6 yr to adolescence; 
    • sexual concerns largely unimportant
  19. Genital Stage
    • adolescence to adulthood;
    • reemergence of sexual interests and establishment of mature sexual relationships
  20. conscience
    prevents us from behaving in a morally improper way by making us feel guilty if we do wrong
  21. defense mechanisms
    in freudian theory, unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source of it from themselves and others
  22. repression
    unacceptable or unpleasant impulses are pushed back into the unconscious
  23. regression
    people behave as if they were at an earlier stage of the development
  24. displacement
    the expression of an unwanted feeling or thought is redirected from a more threatening powerful person to a weaker one
  25. rationalization
    people provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason for their behavior
  26. denial
    people refuse to accept or acknowledge an anxiety-producing piece of information
  27. projection
    people attribute unwanted impulses and feelings to someone else
  28. sublimation
    people divert unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
  29. reaction formation
    unconscious impulses are expressed as their opposite in consciousness
  30. neo-freudian psychoanalysts
    psychoanalysts who were trained in traditional freudian theory but who later rejected some of its major points
  31. collective unconscious
    according to Jung, its a common set of ideas, feelings, images, and symbols that we inherit from our ancestors, the whole human race ,and even animal ancestors from the distant past
  32. Who rejected freud's view of the primary importance of unconscious sexual urges?
    neo-freudians, Carl jung
  33. archetypes
    universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience (such as good and evil)
  34. Karen Horney
    • personality develops in context of social relationships and depends particularly on relationship between parents and child and how well child's needs are met. no penis envy, but sucess, independence, and freedom
    • -stressed importance of cultural factors
  35. Alfred Adler
    • says that primary human motivation is a striving for superiority in terms of self-improvement and perfection
    • -inferiority complex
  36. inferiority complex
    according to Adler, a problem affecting adults who have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority that they developed as children, when they were small and limited in their knowledge about the world

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