Upper Extremity-Shoulder & Arm

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Author:
ae_228
ID:
280065
Filename:
Upper Extremity-Shoulder & Arm
Updated:
2014-07-31 12:48:09
Tags:
anatomy muscles shoulder arm
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Description:
Origins, Insertions, Actions and Innervations of Shoulder and Arm
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  1. Deltoid-Action
    • All fibers:
    •   *ABDUCT the shoulder (glenohumeral joint)
    • Anterior fibers:
    •   *flex the shoulder (g/h joint)
    •   *medially rotate shoulder (g/h joint)
    •   *horizontally adduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Posterior fibers:
    •   *Extend the shoulder (g/h joint)
    •   *Laterally rotate the shoulder (g/h joint)
    •   *Horizontally ABduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
  2. Deltoid-Origin
    Lateral one-third of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula
  3. Deltoid- Insertion
    Deltoid Tuberosity
  4. Deltoid-Innervation
    Axillary C5, 6
  5. Trapezius-Action
    • Upper fibers:
    •   *Bilaterally
    •      *Extend the head and neck
    •   *Unilaterally
    •      *Laterally flex the head and neck to the same side
    •      *Rotate the head and neck to the opposite side
    •      *Elevate the scapula (scapulothoracic joint)
    •      *Upwardly rotate the scapula (s/t joint)
    • Middle fibers:
    •   *Adduct the scapula (s/t joint)
    •   *Stabilize the scapula (s/t joint)
    • Lower fibers:
    •   *Depress the scapula (s/t joint)
    •   *Upwardly rotate the scapula (s/t joint)
  6. Trapezius-Origin
    External Occipital protuberance, medial portion of superior nuchal line of the occiput, ligamentum nuchae and spinous process of C-7 through T-12
  7. Trapezius-Insertion
    Lateral one-third of clavicle, acromion and spine of the scapula
  8. Trapezius-Innervation
    Spinal portion of cranial nerve XI (accessory) and ventral ramus C2, 3, 4
  9. Latissimus Dorsi-Action
    • Extend the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Adduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Medially rotate the shoulder (g/h joint)
  10. Latissimus Dorsi-Origin
    Inferior angle of scapula, spinous process of last 6 thoracic vertebrae, last 3 or 4 ribs, throacolumbar aponeurosis and posterior iliac crest
  11. Latissimus Dorsi-Insertion
    Intertubercular groove of the humerus
  12. Latissimus Dorsi-Innervation
    Thoracodorsal C6, 7, 8
  13. Teres Major-Action
    *Note: Teres major and latissimus dorsi share the same actions
    • Extend the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Adduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Medially rotate the shoulder (g/h joint)

    • *note: could be more than one option
    • *
  14. Teres Major-Origin
    Inferior Angle and lower one-third of lateral border of the scapula
  15. Teres Major-Insertion
    Crest of the lesser tubercle of the humerus
  16. Teres Major-Innervation
    Lower subscapular C5, 6, 7
  17. Rotator Cuff Muscles
    • SITS
    •   Supraspinatus
    •   Infraspinatus
    •   Teres minor
    •   Subscapularis
  18. Supraspinatus-Action
    • Abduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Stabilize the head of the humerus in glenoid cavity
  19. Supraspinatus-Origin
    Supraspinous fossa of the scapula
  20. Supraspinatus-Insertion
    *note: same as infraspinatus and teres minor
    Greater tubercle of the humerus
  21. Supraspinatus-Innervation
    *note: same as infraspinatus
    Suprascapular C4, 5, 6
  22. Infraspinatus-Action
    *note: same as teres minor
    • Laterally rotate the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Adduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Stabilize the head of humerus in glenoid cavity
  23. Infraspinatus-Origin
    Infraspinous fossa of the scapula
  24. Infraspinatus-Insertion
    *note: same as supraspinatus, and teres minor
    Greater Tubercle of the humerus
  25. Infraspinatus-Innervation
    *note: same as supraspinatus
    Suprascapular C4, 5, 6
  26. Teres Minor-Action
    *note: same as infraspinatus
    • Laterally rotate the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Adduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Stabilize the head of humerus in glenoid cavity
  27. Teres Minor-Origin
    Upper two-thirds of lateral border of the scapula
  28. Teres Minor-Insertion
    *note: same as infra and supraspinatus
    Greater tubercle of the humerus
  29. Subscapularis-Action
    • Medially rotate the shoulder (glenohumeral joint)
    • Stabilize the head of humerus in glenoid cavity
  30. Subscapularis-Origin
    Subscapular fossa of the scapula
  31. Subscapularis-Insertion
    Lesser tubercle of the humerus
  32. Subscapularis-Innervation
    Upper and lower subscapular C5, 6, 7
  33. Rhomboid Major and Minor-Action
    • Adduct the scapula (scapulothoracic joint)
    • Elevate the scapula (s/t joint)
    • Downwardly rotate teh scapula (s/t joint)
  34. Rhomboid Major and Minor-Origin
    • Major:
    •    Spinous processes of T-2 to T-5
    • Minor:
    •    Spinous processes of C-7 and T-1
  35. Rhomboid Major and Minor-Insertion
    • Major:
    •    Medial border of the scapula between the spine of the scapula and the inferior angle
    • Minor:
    •    Upper portion of medial border of the scapula, across from spine and scapula
  36. Rhomboid Major and Minor-Innervation
    Dorsal scapular C4, 5
  37. Levator Scapula-Action
    • Unilaterally:
    •   *Elevate the scapula (scapulothoracic joint)
    •   *Downwardly rotate the scapula (S/t joint)
    •   *Laterally flex the head and neck
    •   *Rotate the head and neck to the same side
    • Bilaterally:
    •   *Extend the head and neck
  38. Levator Scapula-Origin
    Transverse processes of the first through fourth cervical vertebrae
  39. Levator Scapula-Insertion
    Medial border of scapula, between superior angle and superior portion of spine of scapula
  40. Levator Scapula-Innervation
    Cervical 3, 4, and Dorsal Scapular C4, 5
  41. Serratus Anterior-Action
    • With the origin fixed:
    •   *Abduct the scapula (scapulorthoracic joint)
    •   *Upwardly rotate the scapula (s/t joint)
    •   *Depress the scapula (s/t joint)
    •   *Hold the medial border of the scapula against the rib cage
    • With the scapula fixed:
    •   *may act to elevate the thorax during forced inhalation
  42. Serratus Anterior-Origin
    External surfaces of upper eight or nine ribs
  43. Serratus Anterior-Insertion
    Anterior surface of medial border of the scapula
  44. Serratus Anterior-Innervation
    Long Thoracic C5, 6, 7, 8
  45. Pectoralis Major-Action
    • All fibers:
    •   *Adduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
    •   *Medially rotate the shoulder (g/h joint)
    •   *Assist to elevate the thorax during forced inhalation (with the arm fixed)
    • Upper fibers:
    •   *Flex the shoulder (g/h joint)
    •   *Horizontally adduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Lower fibers:
    •   *Extend the shoulder (g/h joint)
  46. Pectoralis Major-Origin
    Medial half of clavicle, sternum and cartilage of the 1st-6th ribs
  47. Pectoralis Major-Insertion
    Crest of greater tubercle of humerus
  48. Pectoralis Major-Innervation
    • Upper fibers:
    •   *Lateral Pectoral C5, 6, 7
    • Lower fibers:
    •   *Lateral and medial pectoral C6, 7, 8, T1
  49. Pectoralis Minor-Action
    • Depress the scapula (scapulothoracic joint)
    • Abduct the scapula (s/t joint)
    • Downwardly rotate the scapula (s/t joint)

    • With the scapula fixed:
    •   *Assist to elevate the thorax during forced inhalation
  50. Pectoralis Minor-Origin
    3rd, 4th, and 5th ribs
  51. Pectoralis Minor-Insertion
    Medial surface of coracoid process of the scapula
  52. Pectoralis Minor-Innervation
    Medial pectoral, with fibers from a communicating branch of the lateral pectoral C6, 7, 8, T1
  53. Subclavius-Action
    • Depress the clavicle and draw it anteriorly
    • Elevate the first rib (to assist during inhalation)
    • Stabilize the sternoclavicular joint
  54. Subclavius-Origin
    First rib and cartilage
  55. Subclavius-Insertion
    Inferior surface of middle one-third of clavical
  56. Subclavius-Innervation
    Subclavian C5, 6
  57. Biceps Brachii-Action
    • Flex the elbow (humeroulnar joint)
    • Supinate the forearm (radioulnar joints)
    • Flex the shoulder (glenohumeral joint)
  58. Biceps Brachii-Origin
    • Short head:
    •   *coracoid process of scapula
    • Long head:
    •   *supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
  59. Biceps Brachii-Insertion
    Tuberosity of the radius and aponeurosis of the biceps brachii
  60. Biceps Brachii-Innervation
    Musculocutaneous C5, 6
  61. Triceps Brachii-Action
    • All heads:
    •   *Extend the elbow (humeroulnar joint)
    • Long head:
    •   *Extend the shoulder (g/h joint)
    •   *Adduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
  62. Triceps Brachii-Origin
    • Long head:
    •   *Infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
    • Lateral head:
    •   *Posterior surface of proximal half of the the humerus
    • Medial Head:
    •   *Posterior surface of distal half of the humerus
  63. Triceps Brachii-Insertion
    Olecranon process of the ulna
  64. Triceps Brachii-Innervation
    Radial C6, 7, 8, T1
  65. Coracobrachialis-Action
    • Flex the shoulder (g/h joint)
    • Adduct the shoulder (g/h joint)
  66. Coracobrachialis-Origin
    Coracoid process of the scapula
  67. Coracobrachialis-Insertion
    Medial surface of mid-humeral shaft
  68. Coracobrachialis-Innervation
    Musculocutaneous C6, 7

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