Clinical Physics - Part 1.txt

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Clinical Physics - Part 1.txt
2014-07-31 19:01:38
part 1 abr
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  1. Number of Cranial nerves in the human body
  2. Sensitivity phase given by M0 M2 S G1 G2
    Late M and G2 (S is least sensitive)
  3. What system is most sensitive to radiation?
  4. The bones of the forearm are known as?
    Radius and Ulna
  5. Where are the adrenal glands located?
    Atop the Kidneys
  6. Volume of blood in human body
    ~5 Liters
  7. How many lobes are there in the lung?      
  8. Where are erythrocytes produced?
    Red bone Marrow
  9. What is the Iliac crest landmark
  10. Oxygen enters blood in the lungs by what method
    Passive Diffusion
  11. The Liver gets its blood from what vein.
    Hepatic Portal Vein
  12. Name the Gallbladder function
    Store and secrete bile into duodenum
  13. Know the function of the Liver
    Detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion
  14. Circulatory path of the human body
    Body > Vena Cava > Right Atrium > Right Ventricle > Pulmonery Artery > Lungs > Pulmonary Vein > Left Atrium > Left Ventricle > Aorta > Body
  15. Ileum, jejunum and duodenum sequence
    • Duodenum > Jejunum > Ileum 
    • All small intestines
  16. Nutrients absorbed in what part of the digestive tract
    Small intestines (jejunum)
  17. What is Thallium given for?
    Heart stress test, nuclear cardiography
  18. Gallbladder imaging is done by which modality
  19. What is the function of the cerebellum?
    Motor control
  20. The two parts of cerebrum are connected by which part of the brain.
    Corpus Callosum
  21. Where are alveoli situated?
    Lungs, at the end of the bronchioles
  22. Hiatal hernia - modality used for imaging
    • Stomach sticks up into chest through diaphragm
    • Upper GI,endoscopy, including barium contrast
  23. Given MR image of a spine - what is not ok?
    Look at images
  24. What is a Stroke associated with?
    • Blood clot in brain
    • Brain death
    • Lack of blood flow caused by thrombosis (arterial embolism) or hemorrhage (leakage of blood)
  25. What does Transurethral resection mean?
    • Simultaneous visualization and resection of tissue through urethra by electrocautery or sharp dissection.
    • Usually used for enlarged prostate that blocks urethra.
  26. Where is the Foramen Magnum located?
    • Base of skull.
    • Opening at base of skull for the brain stem
  27. What is Liver hypertension known as?
    Portal hypertension, cirrhosis of the liver that causes blood to get backed up in liver blood vessels
  28. Where are the islets of langerhans located?
    • Pancreas
    • Creates insulin, glucagon, and other hormones
  29. Location and function of the lacrimal glands
    • Upper outer portion of each orbit
    • Produces tears
  30. What is the cauda-equina?
    • Bundle of nerves coming off of the spinal cord at the end.
    • Lumbar and sacral nerves
  31. At what vertebral level is the caudal end of the spinal cord in humans?
  32. 1 Sv low LET effect; 1 Gy to testes of 20- year old, what
    is the effect?
    • Temporary sterility
    • About 1 year to recover
  33. CT slice showing spleen, liver, psoas major muscle and the aorta, be able to identify.
    • Liver is large structure on right side
    • Spleen is smaller and above the liver near middle of body
    • Psoas Major Muscle controls the legs and is near the spine
    • Aorta is near the center of the body and should be filled with blood (water-like)
  34. CT scan given and asked to identify prostate gland.
    Center of body between the bladder and rectum
  35. What are the 4 R's of Radiobiology?
    • Repair
    • Repopulation
    • Redistribution
    • Reoxygenation
  36. Location of the spleen (or pancreas)
    • Anterior aspect of stomach
    • Under diaphragm
  37. What does the spleen do besides filter out old blood cells?
    • Stores products
    • Stores blood platelets 
    • Blood reservoir
  38. Know what is affected by stenosis, bone, nerve sheath, etc.
    Stenosis is narrowing of blood vessels or bone cavities (like vertebral column)
  39. Name of a tumor in the tissue surrounding the brain
  40. Where's the Corpus Callosum?
    • Center of brain
    • Under cerebral cortex
    • Longitudinal fissue connecting right and left cerebral hemispheres
  41. What does the hypothalamus do/or excrete?
    • Control Center of the body
    • Controls pituitary output by secreting specific chemicals to pituitary’s front lobe
    • Also controls body weight and appetite.
  42. What is the side effect of giving too much dose to the
    Dry mouth (xerostomia)
  43. The most probable side effect of giving 20 mSv to an 8-15 week old is?
    Mental retardation
  44. Minimal dose required for transient erythema
    2 Gy
  45. Dose required for gastrointestinal syndrome
    • 10+ Gy
    • 10-100Gy
  46. What is the peritoneum?
    • Lining of the abdominal cavity
    • Membrane
  47. What modality gives the most skin dose
    CT or Fluoro
  48. What is an embolism
    Blood clot that is a result of an embolus (a detached intravascular mass capable of clogging arterial capillary beds at a site far from its origin)
  49. What do the alevoli do?
    Absorb oxygen and release CO2 and water
  50. Where does blood go to after leaving the left ventricle in
    the heart
  51. Question about a muscle that doesn't contract as much as it
    should: is it dyskinetic, hyperkinetic, hypokinetic, etc
  52. Possible type of cancer a child will get if irradiated
    during fetal stage
  53. Another name for cell death
    • Apoptosis
    • Cell Lysis
  54. What is the single target single hit model D0?
    •  is the mean lethal dose
  55. What is the master gland?
    Pituitary Gland
  56. Where does breast cancer metastasize first?
    Axillary lymph nodes
  57. What is a metastasis?
    Cancer cells that have left the originating organ and attached and proliferated at a distant organ
  58. Which type of secondary cancer will show up the earliest due to radiation treatment
  59. What is the vessel that helps to get nutrients to the liver (blood vessel)
    Hepatic portal artery and vein
  60. What is the linear no-threshold theory
    • More dose is more cancer risk
    • No threshold of dose for effect
  61. Injury to the Brachial Plexus affects what
    • Nerves of the ipsilateral arm.
    • Paralysis of arm
  62. Which part of eye most sensitive to radiation
  63. Which part of eye responds to visual stimulus
  64. Types of cancer in the brain (along the lines of what type)
    • Glioblastoma (glial cells - non-neural cells like myelin)
    • Meningioma (meninges)
  65. Where is the location of the optic chiasm
    • Center of head behind the eyes
    • Diencephalon
    • Immediately below and anterior to the Hypothalamas
  66. What is the long bone in the LOWER part of the leg
    Tibia (not fibula)
  67. How many vertebrae in the cervical spine
    • 7
    • Note there are 7 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar
    • Sacrum is fusion of 5 bones
    • Coccyx is fusion of 4 bones
  68. Type of scan to stage lung cancer
  69. What is the most common effect of fetal irradiation post organogenesis?
    Mental Retardation (~8-12 weeks)
  70. List organs in a large opening in the body (could be mediastinum or peritoneum)
    Depends on location...
  71. The opening in the diaphragm allows the passage of what three organs?
    • Aorta
    • Inferior Vena Cava
    • Esophagus
  72. Where is the pineal gland?
    • Behind the diencephalon
    • Behind the Thalamas
  73. In men, what cancer is most likely to metastasize to bone?
    Prostate cancer
  74. Where does the vena cava dump?
    Right atrium
  75. What has the most oxygenated blood flowing through it?
    Pulmonary Vein
  76. Where is CSF created?
    Choroid Plexus
  77. Systolic heart has 35 cc of blood, diastolic heart has 91 cc of blood. What is percent of blood is expelled? 
    (91-35)/91 = 61.5%
  78. What do you call material in the blood stream that will clog an artery
  79. What is main function of spleen?
    • Cleans blood
    • Removes old blood cells
  80. What cell in blood is most radiosensitive?
    Lymphocytes (White Blood Cells)
  81. Using the single hit theory, what is surviving fraction of cells hit with 100 cGy and Do is 50 cGy?
  82. What organ(s) produces bile?
    • Liver
    • Stored in gallbladder
  83. What is joint lubrication fluid known as?
    Synovial Fluid
  84. What time frame do organs develop in a fetus?
    2-8 weeks
  85. The purpose of taking of a creatine reading of somebody before you give them contrast is to insure the patient doesn’t do what?
    Kidney failure is a risk for certain patients with low creatine if given contrast for imaging
  86. Pleural effusion is what?
    Fluid accumulation in the pleura (linings of lung)
  87. What lymph nodes are usually removed with a mastectomy?
    Axillary lymph nodes
  88. What is the term for programmed cell death?
  89. After irradiation, mature germ cells will go through heightened activity then sterility, as opposed to  immature germ cells. Why?
    • ‘Heightened activity’ from enhanced differentiation (Schwenke K, 1996)
    • Mature cells are more radioresistant than immature cells
  90. What are the units of LET?
  91. What tumor has the highest CT number?
    Bone tumor (osteosarcoma)
  92. What is grey matter?
    • Functional brain cells 
    • Nerve nuclei
  93. What is a Sestamibi Scan?
    • Imaging for hyperthyroidism with nuclear medicine
    • Uses Tc-99m
  94. Where are glomeruli?
    Kidneys (inside the nephrons)
  95. Most radiosensitive part of cell division?
    • M
    • Late M and G2
  96. An EEG measures what?
    Electrical activity of the brain
  97. A dry mouth is caused by irradiating what part of the body?
    • Salivary glands
    • Parotids, SMGs
  98. What is the function of the prostate?
    Create alkaline fluid for semen
  99. What is most stable byproduct of hydrolysis?
  100. What is the circle of Willis and where is it located?
    • Arterial blood vessels in the Brain
    • Located midbrain
  101. The suffix –ectomy means what?
    Removal (usually through surgery)
  102. The left atrium empties into what?
    Left Ventricle
  103. What type of tissue is usually involved in the breast cancer?
    • Ductal tissue (mammary gland ducts)
    • Epithelial tissue
  104. What’s the earliest visible effect of radiation?
    Erythema (redness of skin)
  105. What’s the increased risk of cancer after X Gy of irradiation
    5% per Sv (NCRP 116)
  106. Circulatory system -- cardiac anatomy, path of
    blood through the heart and lungs
    Body > Vena Cava > Right Atrium > Right Ventricle > Pulmonary Artery > Lungs > Pulmonary Vein > Left Atrium > Left Ventricle > Aorta > Body
  107. How long after radiation would you observe telangiectasia in a patient?
    > 1 year
  108. Estrogen is produced in the…?
  109. Visual association occurs where?
    Occipital Lobe
  110. What produces digestive juices?
  111. What is fibromyalgia?
    • Increased sensitivity to pressure and touch.
    • Causes chronic pain in muscles, etc.
  112. Which is a bone in the foot?
    • Calcaneus
    • Tarsals
    • Metatarsals
    • Talus
  113. A TBI of 1 Sv will cause…?
    Lower lymphocyte count
  114. Intravascular brachytherapy uses what isotope?
  115. Given _____ would make one hypoglycemic.
  116. What is fibrosis?
    Scar tissue
  117. A diagnostic complication refers to?
    • Iodine allergy?
    • Contrast allergies?
  118. A fetus will receive the most dose from what type of scan?
    CT scans or Fluoroscopy
  119. Which imaging modality for virtual colonoscopy?
    CT scan
  120. Plasma volume in whole blood?
  121. Meiosis is the production of…?
    Gametes (sex cells)
  122. Essential minerals of human body
    Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Cl, S
  123. What does teratogenic mean?
    Can cause birth defects
  124. What cell in blood is most radiosensitive?
  125. Contamination lower detection limit:
  126. What's shallow equivalent dose depth?
    0.007 cm
  127. What marks the point where the trachea and bronchi meet?
  128. What does stereotaxis refer to?
    3D localization
  129. What can measure magnetic field created by the brain?
    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) with SQUID
  130. What is ‘skyshine’ in radiation shielding?
    Backscattered radiation from the air/atmosphere
  131. What's stochastic effect out of many symptoms?
  132. What's no threshold and a function of dose?
    Stochastic effects like cancer
  133. Stochastic effect uses?
    Linear no threshold model
  134. What's the result after damage to optic chiasm?
  135. What has -100 CT# if water is 0?
  136. What quadrant is breast cancer most likely?
    Upper Outer Quadrant
  137. What can cardiac angiography can detect?
  138. Damage to what part of inner ear affects balance?
    • Semicircular canals
    • Vestibular Apparatus
  139. What is osteoporosis?
    Lowered bone density
  140. What's BPH related to?
    • Prostate enlargement
    • Benign prostate hyperplasia
  141. Choose what doppler ultrasound can detect from a list.
    Usually air interfaces, calcifications in soft tissue, etc.
  142. Is less differentiated cell more or less radiosensitive than more differentiate cells like muscle and neuron?
    Less differentiated cells are more radiosensitive than more differentiated cells
  143. What's brain metabolism substrate?
  144. What gland controls endocrine system?
    Pituitary Gland
  145. What's 180 degree opposite to LAO?
    Right Posterior Oblique (RPO)
  146. Survival curve n=4, D0 =1, what's Dq?
    • Dq is the quasithreshold dose
  147. Sentinel event in a cardiac catheterization is due to overexposure of which skin entrance dose?
    • Sentinel event is an event that results in severe damage or death to the patient
    • Misdelivery, overdosage (>25%), or treatment of wrong organ, etc.
  148. What is a normal size of prostate?
    ~30-40 cm3
  149. 100 Gy acute dose, what type of death?
    CNS syndrome
  150. If each of two arms of chromatin gets a break, what's the most likely result?
    Anaphase bridge or ring if it's a chromatid
  151. What is the location of the Umbilicus with respect to vertebral bodies?
    L3-L4 at the level of the navel
  152. What's the half life lower limit you have to test leakage?
    < 30 days
  153. Name a tumor of the pituitary gland?
    Noncancerous growth (adenoma)
  154. Larynx is close to what vertebra?
  155. What is the depth for lens dose equivalent (LED)?
    0.3 cm
  156. What is the transport index (TI) for a package containing radioactive material?
    Multiple of 0.01 mSv/hr at 1m (e.g. 0.1 mSv/hr --> TI = 10)
  157. The rational for fractionation is described as…
    Normal tissues repair faster than cancerous tissues
  158. Gleason score is for staging what type of cancer?
    Prostate Cancer
  159. How many temporal lobes does the brain have?
    2 (left and right)
  160. Ligaments of the knee include the…?
  161. What is the best technique for imaging multiple sclerosis?
  162. Which cancer has the shortest latency period?
  163. Stereotactic radiosurgery is best for what?
    Lung and brain tumors
  164. Buccal cavity is another name for?
  165. ICRP defined the dose over 50 years in a given tissue after intake of a radionuclide, which is called?
    Committed Dose
  166. Radiation leakage is defined as?
    Dose at 1m away from sealed source
  167. What mineral is used by nerve cell to stimulate skeletal muscle?
  168. If a patient has been exposed to Radium, where will radon be detected?
    Lungs, sweat, feces
  169. Low LET radiation is correlated to cell killing using which parameter?
    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE)
  170. Ionizing radiation causes damage to?
  171. Location of pineal gland?
    • Located just rostro-dorsal to the superior colliculus and behind and beneath the stria medullaris
    • Between the laterally positioned thalamic bodies.
    • It is part of the epithalamus.
  172. Lose equilibrium is due to the damage of?
    • Inner ear
    • Cerebellum.
  173. Irradiation during what time during gestation is congenital abnormality most likely to occur?
    2-8 weeks
  174. Minimum dose to induce CNS death?
    50 Gy
  175. Location of vocal cords?
    Within the larynx at the top of the trachea
  176. Is less differentiated cell more or less radiosensitive than more differentiated cells like muscle and neuron?
    Less differentiated cells are more radiosensitive than more differentiated cells
  177. What is BPH related to?
    Enlargement of prostate