ABSITE Ch 4: Immunology

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ABSITE Ch 4: Immunology
2014-08-03 20:18:00
ABSITE surgery

Absite review chapter 4: Immunology
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  1. What do helper T cells do?
    • Release IL-2 -> matures cytotoxic T cells
    • Release IL-4 -> Matures B-cells (plasma cells)
    • Involved in delayed-type hypersensitivity
  2. What do suppressor T cells do?
    Regulate CD4 and CD8 T cells
  3. What do Cytotoxic T cells do?
    Recognize and attack non-self antigens attached to MHCI
  4. MHC Class I 
    a) Recognized by?
    b) Present on which cells?
    c) How many chains?
    • a) CD8 - cytotoxic T cells
    • b) Present on all nucleated cells
    • c) single chain with 5 domains
  5. MHC class II
    a) Recognized by?
    b) Present on which cells?
    c) How many chains?
    • a) CD4 - T helper cells
    • b) Present on antigen-presenting cells
    • c) 2 chains with 4 domains eack
  6. Natural killer cells function?
    Recognize cells that lack self MHC (class I), part of immunosurveillance for cancer
  7. IgM
    • Initial Ab made after first exposure
    • 5 domains
  8. IgG
    • Secondary immune response
    • Crosses placenta
    • 1 domain
  9. Which Ab crosses the placenta?
  10. Which Ab is secreted?
  11. IgA
    • Found in secretions and breast milk
    • 2 domains
  12. IgD
    Membrane bound receptor on B cells
  13. Which Ab are opsonins?
    • IgM
    • IgG
  14. Which Ab fix compliment?
    • IgM
    • IgG
  15. What does the variable region of an Ab do?
    Recognized Ag
  16. What does the constant region of an Ab do?
    Recognized by target cells (for opsonization, etc)
  17. Type I hypersensitivity?
    • Immediate hypersensitivity reaction
    • Eosinophils and IgE -> mast cells and basophils
  18. Type II hypersensitivity?
    IgG or IgM interact with cell-bound antigen
  19. Type III hypersensitivity?
    Immune complex deposition
  20. Type IV hypersensitivity?
    Delayed-type hypersensitivity - antigen stimulation of previously sensitized T cells
  21. Major source of histamine in the blood?
  22. Major source of histamine in the tissues?
    Mast cells
  23. Primary lymphoid organs?
    • Liver
    • Bone
    • Thymus
  24. Secondary lymphoid organs?
    • Spleen
    • Lymph nodes
  25. What is an immunologic chimera?
    2 different cell lines in one individual
  26. What does IL-2 do (oncologic treatment)?
    • Converts lymphocytes to lymphokine-activated killer cells by enhancing immune response to tumor
    • Converts lymphocytes into tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
    • Has shown some success for melanoma
  27. Tetanus prophylaxis
    • Tetanus toxoid only if non-tetanus prone wound if < 3 doses or status unknown
    • Always give toxoid if tetanus-prone wound unless pt is immunized
    • Immune globulin if tetanus-prone wound and pt not immunized or status unknown