Biochem Amino Acids

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hollyerichsen
ID:
280230
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Biochem Amino Acids
Updated:
2014-08-06 13:41:47
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Biochem AMino Acids
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Description:
Amino Acid
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  1. Glycine
    • Non-polar
    • Uncharged
    • Non-essential
    • Only AA without a chiral C
    • Found in high concentrations in collagen
    • Allows bends in peptide chains
  2. Alanine
    • Non-polar
    • Uncharged
    • Non-essential
    • Released from muscle during starvation, exercise, or after high carbohydrate meal to be turned into glucose (used in glyconeogenesis)
  3. Valine
    • Non-polar (aliphatic)
    • Uncharged
    • Essential
    • Branched chain AA
  4. Leucine
    • Non-polar
    • Uncharged
    • Essential
    • Branched Chain AA
    • High concentrationi in globulins and albumins (hemoglobin)
    • Partial degredation yields HMG CoA (Precurser to cholesterol)
  5. Isolecine
    • Nonpolar
    • Uncharged
    • Essential
    • Branched chain
    • Structural isomer of leucine
  6. Methionine
    • Nonpolar
    • Uncharged
    • Essential
    • S-containing (sulfer)
    • Precursor for S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) and cysteine
  7. Function of SAMe in the body
    Methylates compounds
  8. Same required to make
    Carnitine, creatine, epinephrine, melatonin, glutathione, taurine, myelin basic protein
  9. There has been some evidence to suggest SAMe could be used to treat
    Osteoarthritis, depression
  10. Population who should not use SAMe
    Those with bipolar disorder, patients already on antidepressents, cancer patients (chemo meds interact)
  11. Proline
    • Nonpolar (but not aliphatic)
    • Uncharged
    • Nonessential
    • NOT aromatic, despite ring structure (not a 6 carbon ring)
    • Disrupts α-helix and β-pleated sheet structure
    • Found in high concentrations in collagen
  12. AA that makes up part of the glucose that is intolerable in those with celiac's disease
    Proline
  13. Two components of gluten, which is the body intolerant of?
    Glutenin, gliadin - body doesn't like gliadin (about 1/133 Americans have Ciliac's - autoimmune disorder concerning gluten)
  14. Phenylalanine
    • Nonpolar
    • Aromatic (has the 6 carbon ring structure)
    • Uncharged
    • Essential
    • Precursor for tyrosine
  15. People with PKU lack the ability to process which amino acid?
    Phenylalanine
  16. A patient with PKU needs to consume more of which AA, because of the inability to process Phenylalanine?
    Thiamine
  17. In cystic fibrosis, what is missing in the protein that regulates transport of choride ions across cell membranes?
    1 phenylalanine
  18. In patients with cystic fibrosis, the missing phenylalanine causes buildup of
    Mucus (especially in lungs/digestive tract)
  19. Tryptophan
    • Nonpolar 
    • Aromatic
    • Uncharged
    • Essential
  20. Tryptophan is a precursor for
    • Serotonin
    • Melatonin
    • Niacin
  21. Neurotransmitter needed for mood, behavior, body T and appetite
    Serotonin (tryptophan is precursor)
  22. Hormone needed for biological clock and acts as an antioxidant
    Melanin (tryptophan is precursor)
  23. Most of the daily requirement for niacin comes from what single AA?
    Tryptophan
  24. Serine
    • Polar
    • Uncharged
    • Nonessential
    • Important in active site of enzymes (able to h-bond easily)
  25. Threonine
    • Polar
    • Uncharged
    • Essential 
    • Similar to serine in the phsphorylation of protein regulation
  26. Cysteine
    • Polar
    • Uncharged
    • Nonessential
    • Thiol group (SH) is a PROTON DONOR in GLUTATHIONE (antioxidant properties)
    • Important in proteins that participate in REDOX
    • reactions
    • Important for cross-linking proteins hrough disulfide bonds
  27. Tyrosine
    • Polar
    • Aromatic
    • Uncharged
    • Nonessential
  28. Tyrosine is a precursor for
    • Thyroid hormones (thyroxine)
    • Melanin (pigment)
    • Catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine)
  29. Asparagine
    • Polar
    • Uncharged
    • Nonessential
    • Forms acrylamide with sugar at high temperature
  30. Glutamine
    • Polar
    • Uncharged
    • Nonessential
    • Most abundant free AA in the body
    • Principal Ncarrier in body 
    • *Made from metabolism of glutamate synthesized in the brain!
  31. Aspartate
    • Acidic (negative charge)
    • Nonessential
    • Important for transporting electrons in electron transport chain
  32. Glutamate
    • Acidic (negative charge)
    • Nonessential
    • Excites neurons
    • Precursor for GABA (GABA is nonexcitatory)
  33. Lysine
    • Basic (net positive charge)
    • Essential
    • Site for hydroxylation in proteins (important in collagen formation)
  34. Alzheimers Disease Proteins
    • Amyloids
    • Tangles
  35. Arginine
    • Basic (net positive charge)
    • Nonessential
    • Precursor for nitric oxide
  36. Histidine
    • Basic (net positive charge)
    • Essential
    • Precursor for histamine (allergies)
    • Important in hemoglobin and myoglobin (Fe)
  37. Essential amino acids
    • Phenylalanine
    • Valine
    • Tryptophan
    • MethionineTHreonine
    • Histidine
    • Isoleucine
    • Lysine
    • Leucine 

    PVT MT HILL
  38. Three ways body uses AA's
    • Glucogenic
    • Ketogenic
    • Both
  39. AA used to make glucose if necessary is called
    Glucogenic
  40. Two AA that are ketogenic only
    • Leucine 
    • Lysine
  41. Four AA's that are Ketogenic and glucogenic
    • Tyrosine
    • Isoleucine
    • Phenylalanine
    • Tryptophan
  42. Five coenzymes/cofactors in AA metabolism (turning essential AA's into non-essential AA's)
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B6
    • Folic acid (B9)
    • Iron 
    • Niacin (B3)
  43. Coenzymes v. Cofactors - which is organic?
    Coenzyme
  44. Coenzymes v. Cofactors - which is inorganic?
    Cofactors
  45. What is the one cofactor required for AA metabolism?
    Iron
  46. Two ways amino acids are synthesized
    • Deamination 
    • Transamination

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