Upper Extremity- Head, Neck and Face

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ae_228
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280234
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Upper Extremity- Head, Neck and Face
Updated:
2014-08-04 18:45:35
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muscles anatomy head neck face
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Muscles of the head, neck and face
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  1. Sternocleidomastoid-Action
    • Unilaterally: laterally flex the head and neck to the same side
    •                     rotate the head and neck to the opposite side
    • Bilaterally: flex the neck
    •                  Assist to elevate the ribcage during inhalation
  2. Sternocleidomastoid-Origin
    • Sternal head: top of manubrium
    • Clavicular head: medial one third of the clavicle
  3. Sternocleidomastoid-Insertion
    mastoid process of temporal bone and the lateral portion of superior nuchal line of the occiput
  4. Sternocleidomastoid-Innveration
    C1, 2, 3
  5. Anterior Scalene-Action
    • Unilaterally: with the ribs fixed, laterally flex the head and neck to the same side (all scalenes)
    •                   Rotate head and neck to the opposite side (all scalenes)
    • Bilaterally: Elevate the ribs during inhalation (all)
    •                 Flex the head and neck (anterior)
  6. Anterior Scalene-Origin
    transverse processes of third through sixth cervical vertebrae (anterior tubercles)
  7. Anterior Scalene-Insertion
    1st rib
  8. Anterior Scalene-Innervation
    C3, 4-8
  9. Middle Scalene-Action
    • Unilaterally: with the ribs fixed, laterally flex the head and neck to the same side (all scalenes)               
    •                Rotate head and neck to the opposite side (all scalenes)
    • Bilaterally: Elevate the ribs during inhalation (all)
  10. Middle Scalene-Origin
    transverse processes of 2nd through 7th cervical vertebrae (posterior tubercles)
  11. Middle Scalene-Insertion
    1st rib
  12. Middle Scalene-Innervation
    C3, 4-8
  13. Posterior Scalene-Action
    • Unilaterally: with the ribs fixed, laterally flex the head and neck to the same side (all scalenes)                 
    •                    Rotate head and neck to the opposite side (all scalenes)
    • Bilaterally: Elevate the ribs during inhalation (all)
  14. Posterior Scalene-Origin
    transverse processes of 6th and 7th cervical vertebrae (posterior tubercles)
  15. Posterior Scalene-Insertion
    2nd rib
  16. Posterior Scalene-Innervation
    C3, 4-8
  17. Masseter-Action
    • Elevate the mandible (temoralmandibular joint)
    • May assist to protract the mandible (tmj)
  18. Masseter-Origin
    zygomatic arch
  19. Masseter-Insertion
    angle and ramus of mandible
  20. Masseter-Innervation
    Trigeminal V nerve, mandibular division
  21. Temporalis-Action
    • Elevate the mandible (tmj)
    • Retract the mandible (tmj)
  22. Temporalis-Origin
    Temporal fossa and fascia
  23. Temporalis-Insertion
    coronoid process and anterior edge of ramus of the mandible
  24. Temporalis-Innervation
    Trigeminal V nerve, mandibular division
  25. Suprahyoid-Action
    • Elevate hyoid and tongue
    • Depress mandible (tmj)
  26. Suprahyoid-Origin
    • geniohyoid, mylohyoid: underside of mandible
    • stylorhyoid: styloid process
  27. Suprahyoid-Insertion
    hyoid bone
  28. Suprahyoid-Innervation
    • Geniohyoid: C1, 2
    • Mylohyoid: trigeminal V
    • Stylohyoid: Facial VII
  29. Digastric-Action
    • With hyoid fixed, depress the mandible (tmj)
    • with mandible fixed, elevate the hyoid bone
    • Retract the mandible (tmj)
  30. Digastric-Origin
    Mastoid process (deep to sternoclediomastoid and splenius capitis)
  31. Digastric-Insertion
    inferior border of the mandible
  32. Digastric-Innervation
    • Anterior belly: Trigeminal V (mandibular division)
    • Posterior belly: Facial VII
  33. Infrahyoids-Action
    Depress the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage
  34. Infrahyoids-Origin
    • Sternohyoid and sternohyoid: top of manubrium
    • thyrohyoid: thyroid cartilage
    • omohyoid: superior border of the scapula
  35. Infrahyoids-Insertion
    • Sternohyoid, Thyrohyoid and Omohyoid: hyoid bone
    • Sternothyroid: thyroid cartilage
  36. Infrahyoids-Innervation
    • Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, and Omohyoid: C1, 2, 3
    • Thyrohyoid: C1, 2
  37. Platysma-Action
    • Assist to depress the mandible (tmj)
    • Tighten the fascia of the neck
    • Draw down corner of the mouth
  38. Platysma-Origin
    Fascia covering superior part of pectoralis major
  39. Platysma-Insertion
    base of mandible, skin of lower part of face
  40. Platysma-Innervation
    Facial VII
  41. Occipitofrontalis-Action
    • Frontalis: Raise the eyebrows and wrinkle the forehead
    • Occipitalis: Anchor and retract the galea posteriorly
  42. Occipitofrontalis-Origin
    Both: Galea aponeurotica
  43. Occipitofrontalis-Insertion
    • Frontalis: Sking superior to eyebrows
    • Occipitalis: Superior nuchal line of the occiput
  44. Occipitofrontalis-Innervation
    Facial VII
  45. Medial Pterygoid-Action
    • Unilaterally: Laterally deviate the mandible to the opposite side
    • Bilaterally: Elevate the mandible
    •                    Protract the mandible
  46. Medial Pterygoid-Origin
    Medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone and tuberosity of maxilla
  47. Medial Pterygoid-Insertion
    medial surface of ramus of the mandible
  48. Medial Pterygoid-Innervation
    Trigeminal V
  49. Lateral Pterygoid-Action
    • Unilaterally: Laterally deviate the mandible to the opposite side
    • Bilaterally: Protract the mandible
  50. Lateral Pterygoid-Origin
    • Superior head: infratemporal surface and crest of greater wing of sphenoid bone
    • Inferior head: Lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone
  51. Lateral Pterygoid-Insertion
    Articular disc and capsule of tmj, neck of mandible
  52. Lateral Pterygoid-Innervation
    Trigeminal V
  53. Longus Capitis-Action
    • Unilaterally: Laterally flex the head and neck to the same side
    •                     Rotate the head and neck to the same side
    • Bilaterally: Flex the head and neck
  54. Longus Capitis-Origin
    Transverse processes of C3-C6
  55. Longus Capitis-Insertion
    Inferior surface of occiput
  56. Longus Capitis-Innervation
    C1, 2, 3 ,4
  57. Longus Colli-Action
    • Unilaterally: Laterally flex the head and neck to the same side
    •                   Rotate the head and neck to the same side
    • Bilaterally: Flex the head and neck
  58. Longus Colli-Origin
    Bodies of C5-T3, transverse processes of C3-5
  59. Longus Colli-Insertion
    Tubercle on anterior arch of the atlas; bodies of the axis, c3 and c4; transverse processes of C5 and 6
  60. Longus Colli-Innervation
    C2-6, 7

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